140 terms

Understanding Nutrition

What represents a food choice based on negative association?
An elderly gentleman who refuses a peanut butter and jelly sandwich because he deems it a child's food
By chemical analysis, what nutrient is present in the highest amounts in most foods?
What is an example of a micronutrient?
Vitamin C
Approximately how many nutrients are considered indispensable in the diet?
Bob consumes about 2500 kcalories per day, which is apportioned as 150 g of fat, 140 g of carbohydrate, and 150 g of protein. What would be the appropriate revisions to help Bob adjust his nutrient intake so that it matches the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges?
70 g fat, 156 g protein, 313 g carbohydrate
What type of deficiency is caused by inadequate absorption of a nutrient?
All of the following are minimum requirements for becoming a Registered Dietitian except
wrong = completing up to a three-week clinical internship or the equivalent.
a. earning an undergraduate degree.
b. completing approximately 60 semester hours in nutrition and food science.
c. passing a national examination administered by the American Dietetic Association.
Which of the following is not one of the six classes of nutrients?
the 6 classes are:
Inorganic- minerals, water
Organic - carbs, lipids (fats), proteins, vitamins
What is used to determine the presence of abnormal functions inside the body due to a nutrient deficiency?
Laboratory tests
What nutrient sources yields more than 4 kcalories per gram?
Plant fats
What is a feature of the minerals as nutrients?
Some become dissolved in body fluids
What is the benefit of using placebos in an experiment?
All subjects receive a treatment
What statement defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease?
The more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease
What is characteristic of an essential nutrient?
Cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body
A term that describes a food that doesn't provide health benefits beyond its nutrient contribution is
phytonutritional food.
As a registered dietitian at Jones Hospital, you are instructed to write a policy statement on nutrition assessment procedures for all new patients. What is the most useful parameters for the nutrition assessment of individuals?
Historical information, anthropometric data, physical examinations, laboratory tests
Overeating and gaining body weight is an example of a
positive correlation
All of the following describe features for application of the recommended nutrient intakes except
this does not apply - the recommendations also apply to sick people.
These are right -
a. the recommendations are designed to be met through intake of foods and not supplements.
b. it is difficult and unnecessary to meet the recommended intakes for all nutrients each day.
c. the recommendations are neither minimum requirements nor necessarily optimal intakes for everybody.
Of the ten leading causes of illness and death, how many are associated directly with nutrition?
A clinical trial must involve
human beings as subjects.
All of the following are results of making poor food choices except
these are the results of bad food choices -
a. over the long term, they will reduce lifespan in some people.
b. they can promote heart disease and cancer over the long term.
c. over the long term, they will not affect lifespan in some people.
Correct Response
when made over just a single day, they exert great harm to your health
The percentage of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases are termed the
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges.
Inspection of hair, eyes, skin, and posture is part of the nutrition assessment component known as
physical examination
Factors known to be related to a disease but not proven to be causal are called
risk factors
A diet provides a total of 2200 kcalories, of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from protein. How many grams of carbohydrate are contained in the diet?
What does the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of a nutrient represent?
The maximum amount from all sources that appears safe for most healthy people
What is are leading causes of death in the U.S. does not bear a relationship to diet?
Pneumonia and influenza
The motive for a person who alters his diet due to religious convictions is most likely his
Overcooking a food is least likely to affect which of the following groups of nutrients?
What is the meaning of a double-blind experiment?
Neither subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in the control or experimental group
Which of the following represents a rationale for setting the recommendation for energy?
Because a large number of people are overweight, the figures are set to induce a gradual weight loss in most individuals
Approximately how much water (lbs) would be found in a 120-lb person?
What is not a characteristic of vitamins?
What is a result of the metabolism of energy nutrients?
Energy is released
What set of values is used to recommend the average kcalorie intake that maintains population groups in energy balance?
Estimated Energy Requirement
What entity coordinates nutrition-related activities of federal agencies?
The National Nutrition Monitoring program
You have been asked to help a top nutrition researcher conduct human experiments on vitamin C. As the subjects walk into the laboratory, you distribute all the vitamin C pill bottles to the girls and all the placebo pill bottles to the boys. The researcher instantly informs you that there are two errors in your research practice. What steps should you have done differently?
Prevented yourself from knowing what was in the pill bottles, and distributed the bottles randomly to the subjects
RDA and the AI share the same feature except for
neither is useful for evaluating nutrition programs for groups of people.
What is the weight (lbs) of the "reference" adult male?
This is not a characteristic of minerals?
Unstable to light
A weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcalories which includes 30 g of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed by fat?
What best describes a college-educated nutrition and food specialist who is qualified to make evaluations of the nutritional health of people?
Registered dietitian
What is an example of a macronutrient?
The RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances) for nutrients are generally
designed to meet the needs of almost all healthy people.
Excluding fast-food establishments, approximately what percentage of restaurants in the United States show an ethnic emphasis?
International units of energy are expressed in
What describes the legal limitations, if any, for a person who disseminates dietary advice to the public?
A license to practice as a nutritionist or dietitian is required by some states
How are the RDA for almost all vitamin and mineral intakes set?
High, to cover virtually all healthy individuals
An increase in exercise accompanied by a decrease in body weight is an example of a
negative correlation.
Before publication in a reputable journal, the findings of a research study must undergo scrutiny by experts in the field according to a process known as
peer review
How many vitamins are known to be required in the diet of human beings?
What is a major weakness of a laboratory-based study?
The results cannot be applied to human beings
All of the following sets of values are included in the Dietary Reference Intakes except
these are included -
not included Correct response is
Which of the following figures falls within the carbohydrate range of the AMDR?
Who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information?
Registered dietitian
What is the AMDR for fat?
What is an overt symptom of iron deficiency?
What is an organic compound?
Vitamin C
A subclinical nutrient deficiency is defined as one that
is in the early stages.
In nutrition research, observations of the quantities and types of foods eaten by groups of people and the health status of those groups are known as
epidemiological studies.
A person viewing an exciting sports match of her favorite team and eating because of nervousness would be displaying a food choice behavior most likely based on
emotional comfort.
What cannot add fat to the body?
Inorganic nutrients
If a person consumed the upper AMDR limit for protein as part of a diet containing 2500 kcalories, approximately how many grams of protein would be ingested?
To identify early-stage malnutrition, a health professional would use this parameter?
Laboratory tests
What is the benefit of using a large sample size in an experiment?
Chance variation is ruled out
All of the following are recognized, credible sources of nutrition information except
Correct answer
Who's Who in Nutrition.
these are credibile sources -
a. the Food and Drug Administration.
b. the American Dietetic Association.
c. the United States Department of Agriculture.
The study of how a person's genes interact with nutrients is termed
nutritional genomics.
The complete lining of a person's digestive tract is renewed approximately every
3-5 days
Your friend Carrie took a daily supplement of vitamin C and stated that she felt a lot better. Her experience is best described as a(n)
The most common causes of death today in the United States doesn't include
A health magazine contacted you for your expert opinion on what measure best describes the amounts of nutrients that should be consumed by the population. Your reply should be:
The Recommended Dietary Allowances because they represent the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people.
A parent who offers a child a favorite snack as a reward for good behavior is displaying a food behavior known as
positive association.
The Dietary Reference Intakes may be used to
plan and evaluate diets for healthy people.
Which of the following is an anthropometric measure?
body weight
What is the AMDR for carbohydrate?
A normal half-cup vegetable serving weighs approximately how many grams?
is not a macronutrient
How many minerals are known to be required in the diet of human beings?
What represents the usual sequence of stages in the development of a nutrient deficiency resulting from inadequate intake?
Declining nutrient stores, abnormal functions within the body, and overt signs
A child who developed a strong dislike of noodle soup after consuming some when she was sick with flu is an example of a food-related
negative association
Providing enough, but not an excess, of a food is a diet-planning principle known as
What is an enrichment nutrient for grains?
A food scientist is developing a new and improved cereal bar. She consults with you to ask in what order the ingredients should be listed on the food label. The ingredients are: Sugar: 30 g, Puffed wheat: 28 g, Dry milk powder: 5 g, Red food coloring: 35 mg, Salt: 2 g. What is the appropriate order in which to list these ingredients on the food label?
Sugar, puffed wheat, dry milk powder, salt, red food coloring
Population groups such as sedentary older men, sedentary younger women, and active older women have a daily energy need (kcalories) of approximately
What is not a typical characteristic of a vegetarian?
their zinc absorption is efficient due to their high soy intake.
A food label that advertises the product as a "rich source of fiber" is an example of a
nutrient claim.
General features of legumes doesn't include
they are high in fat.
The addition of calcium to some orange juice products by food manufacturers is most properly termed nutrient
What is allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian?
Milk products and plant foods only
What is a characteristic of enriched grain products?
They have all of the added nutrients listed on the label
According to food labeling laws, acceptable synonyms for nonfat milk does not include
no-fat milk
What is a flexitarian?
A vegetarian who occasionally eats small amounts of meat
By law, a serving size on beverage food labels is
8 fl oz
What is a feature of vitamin B12 nutrition in vegetarians?
The vitamin B12 in fermented soy products may have low bioavailability
What are the "ABCDMV" principles of diet planning?
Adequacy, balance, kcalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety
What is the most calcium-dense food?
nonfat milk
What foods' kcalories would be considered as part of one's discretionary kcalorie allowance?
Greg is trying to decide which brand of cereal to buy, but he is a somewhat confused by the health claims. Which of the following represents the highest level of significant scientific agreement?
"This product contains whole grains which have been proven to reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers"
Documented benefits for people following a vegetarian diet doesn't include
lower rates of anemia.
What term describes a food that resembles and substitutes for another food but is nutritionally inferior to it?
Imitation food
What is among the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005?
Engage in regular physical activities
Food exchange systems were originally developed for people with
Cooking an 8-ounce raw steak will reduce the weight (ounces) to approximately
6 oz
Approximately how many kcalories more per day are needed by an average college-age student who is active compared with her inactive counterpart?
According to the principles of the USDA Food Guide, the foundation of a healthful diet should consist of
nutrient-dense foods.
Consider the following menu from the point of view of the USDA Food Guide.
2 eggs, 1 tsp margarine,
2 slices enriched white bread, 1 c whole milk, coffee
2 oz tuna fish, lettuce, 1 tbsp mayonnaise, 2 slices enriched white bread, 1 apple
3 oz hamburger meat, 1 oz cheese, 1/2 c cooked rice, 1/2 c carrots, coffee
Which of the following describes the nutritional value of the fruits and vegetables in this menu?
A source of vitamin C is marginal
A food label ingredient list reads in the following order: Wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in the smallest amount in the food?
Legumes are used as meat alternatives but not for this reason
they can be graded as prime, choice, and select.
According to U.S. food labeling regulations, clear and convincing evidence has not been found for this following health claim regarding nutrition and disease
sugar and diabetes.
Information that must be lawfully provided on food labels doesn't include
the amount recommended for ingestion each day.
Which of the following is a characteristic of structure-function claims on food labels?
They can be made without any FDA approval
Which of the following is an alternative choice for meats in the USDA Food Guide?
In food exchange lists, to what group are olives assigned?
The "5 to 9 a Day" food campaign promotes increased consumption of
fruits and vegetables.
What two major nutrients are supplied by the fruit and vegetable groups?
Vitamins A and C
Of the daily recommended intake of fruit servings, what maximum percentage may be supplied by fruit juice?
The most highly fortified foods on the market are
breakfast cereals
ingredients found on a food label is a source of protein?
In reference to protein what term is used to describe a cut of meat having a low fat content?
Applying the principle of variety in food planning ensures the benefits of
dilution of harmful substances
Approximately how many milliliters constitute a fluid ounce?
What nutrient makes up most of the endosperm section of grains such as wheat and rice?
What is a feature of the Daily Values found on food labels?
They assist people in determining whether a food contains a little or a lot of a nutrient
What is a feature of iron nutrition in vegetarians?
Vegetarians absorb iron more efficiently
Textured vegetable protein is usually made of
soy protein
What is not characteristic of the USDA Food Guide?
Its nutrients of greatest concern include iron, chromium, and vitamin B12
What is not a feature of the process of nutrient enrichment of flours?
Fiber levels are similar to those in the whole grains
The concept of nutrient density is most helpful in achieving what principle of diet planning?
kCalorie control
The consumption of 2000 kcalories per day is sufficient to meet the energy needs of most
sedentary women
What is a feature of U.S. laws governing information on food labels?
Nutrition labeling is not required on foods produced by small businesses or products produced and sold in the same establishment
An empty-kcalorie food is one that contains
excess energy and little or no protein, vitamins or minerals.
What type of bread has the highest fiber content?
Approximately how many grams are in an ounce?
The part of the grain that remains after being refined is the
Whole-grain flour doesn't contain what part of the grain?
What is an example of a food that could help meet the iron needs of vegetarians who consume dairy?
In vegetarians, the RDA is higher for
What is an example of a food that qualifies as a "good source" of calcium?
Yogurt with 150 mg of calcium
What is not an example of legumes?
What is not descriptive of MyPyrimid?
A broad-based figure that conveys the message that grains should be abundant and form the foundation of a healthy diet