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PSYC chap 8
Terms in this set (24)
what two concepts update the classic atkinson shiffrin three stage information processing
concepts of forming memories through automatic processing and working memory
two basic functions of a working memory
(1) Active processing of incoming visual and auditory information
(2) focusing our spotlight of attention.
multiple choice questions are _____ and fill in the blank are ______
recognition and recall
difference between automatic and effortful processing
automatic is without effort and effortful is when focus is needed to comprehend
at which of the atkinson shiffrin three memory stages would iconic and echoic memory occur
Which parts of the brain are important for implicit memory processing, and which parts play a key role in explicit memory processing?
implicit: cerebellum and basal ganglia
explicit: frontal lobes and hippocampus
Your friend has experienced brain damage in an accident. He can remember how to tie his shoes but has a hard time remembering anything told to him during a conversation. What's going on here?
he is having trouble with explicit memories
Which brain area responds to stress hormones by helping to create stronger memories?
the neural basis for learning and memory found at the synapses in the brains memory circuit connections results from brief rapid stimulation its called________
long term potentiation
what is priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
When we are tested immediately after viewing a list of words, we tend to recall the first and last items best, which is known as the ______________ ______________ effect.
what are three ways we forget and how does each happen
encoding failure: unattended information never entered in our memory
storage decay: information fades from memory
retrieval failure: we cannot access stored information
a psychologist who asks you to write down as many objects as you can remember having seen a few minutes earlier is testing your______
the psychological terms for taking in information, retaining it, and later getting it back are the ______,______ and ______
encoding, storage, and retrieval
the concept of working memory
a. clarifies the idea of short term memory by focusing on the active processing that occurs at this stage
b. splits short term memory into two substages- sensory memory and working memory
c. splits short term memory into two areas- working (retrievable) memory and inaccessible memory
d. clarifies the idea of short term memory by focusing on space time and frequency
sensory memory may be visual,_______ memory or auditory, ______ memory
Our short-term memory for new information is limited to about ______________ items.
Memory aids that use visual imagery (such as peg words) or other organizational devices (such as acronyms) are called ________
The hippocampus seems to function as a
a. temporary processing site for explicit memories
b. temporary processing site for implicit memories
c. permanent storage area for emotion-based memories
d. permanent storage area for iconic and echoic memories
Amnesia following hippocampus damage typically leaves people unable to learn new facts or recall recent events. However, they may be able to learn new skills, such as riding a bicycle, which is an ______________ (explicit/implicit) memory.
long-term potentiation (LTP) refers to
a. emotion triggered hormonal changes
b. the role of the hippocampus in processing explicit memories
c. an increase in a cells firing potential after a brief, rapid stimulation
d. aging peoples potential for learning
Specific odors, visual images, emotions, or other associations that help us access a memory are examples of__________
When you feel sad, why might it help to look at pictures that reawaken some of your best memories?
because it triggers the recall of good emotions that are associated with those memories which could improve you mood and put you in a positive mindset
When tested immediately after viewing a list of words, people tend to recall the first and last items more readily than those in the middle. When retested after a delay, they are most likely to recall
a. the first items on the list
b. the first and last items on the list
c. a few items at random
d. the last items on the list
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