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51 terms

Chapter 4 prokaryotic cell Structure

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Monotrichous
The term for one polar flagellum.
isotonic
Equal solute concentrations.
The Glycerol Head
Which region of the phospholipid molecule is hydrophyllic?
Plasmolysis
Water loss from a bacterial cell, and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall is called
Active Transport
This method of moving molecules across the membrane uses proteins embedded in the membrane, and uses ATP energy to move molecules against (up) the concentration gradient.
Pili
The appendage used for conjugation in bacteria.
Cocci
Plural form of the round or spherical shape of bacteria.
Polar
Is the glycerol head of a phospholipid molecule polar or non-polar?
Lipopolysaccharide
What is the term for the outer membrane in gram (-) cell walls?
D-Glutamic acid, D-Alanine
Name 2 unique amino acids found in the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls.
Capsule
A firmly attached glycocalyx
Purple
Gram positive cells appear _____ after the gram stain procedure.
NAG and NAM
The two monosaccharides which form the sugar backbone of the cell wall peptidoglycan.
Strep
The prefix that identifies long chains of cells.
Fimbriae
The type of bacterial appendage (fine, hairlike) used for attachment, not motility.
Bacillus, Clostridium, Sporosarcina
Name the 3 genera which form endospores.
Hook
The portion of the flagellum that links the filament to the basal body.
The solution surrounding the cell is considered hypertonic .
A cell with an internal salt concentration of 0.1% salt is placed in a solution of 2% salt solution. Is the solution surrounding the cell considered hypotonic or hypertonic?
Thin
Do gram negative cells have thick or thin peptidoglycan layers?
Down
Does diffusion move molecules down or up the concentration gradient
4 rings
How many rings are contained in the basal body of gram negative bacteria?
The insertion of the proteins.
Is it the proteins or the fatty acid tails which are responsible for giving the "Fluid Mosaic Model" of the plasma membrane its MOSAIC portion of the name?
Amphitrichous
The term for bacteria that have a single flagellum at each end.
Passive Transport
This method of moving molecules across the membrane uses proteins embedded in the membrane, but does not use ATP energy. It also moves molecules down the concentration gradient.
Osmosis
This is the diffusion of water.
salt
In a solution consisting of salt dissolved in water, which is the solute?
Aquatic bacteria
Gas vacuoles are common in what type of bacteria?
Fatty Acid Tails
Which region of the phospholipid molecule is hydrophobic?
Lophotrichous
The term for bacteria which have a cluster of flagella at one or both ends
Spirochetes
The major bacterial genus that has bacteria with axial filaments
Hypotonic
When the solute concentration is less.
Selective Permeability
The term for membranes which allow some molecules to pass through while blocking passage of other molecules.
Teichoic Acids
What molecules are found in gram positive cell walls and NOT in gram negative?
Polypeptides
Adjacent rows of NAG and NAM are crosslinked by these.
Antigen
O Polysaccharide of the LPS layer of gram (-) cells acts as _______.
Group Translocation
When a substance is chemically altered as it is moved across the plasma membrane
Axial Filaments
The type of filaments which wrap around the bacterial cell and give it a corkscrew type movement.
Hypertonic
When the solute concentration is greater.
Out of the cell.
A cell with an internal salt concentration of 0.1% salt is placed in a solution of 2% salt solution. Which way will water move, into or out of the cell?
Peritrichous
The term for flagella that are spread evenly around the surface of the bacterium
Inorganic Phosphate
What do metachromatic granules contain?
Endospores
Dormant, resistant structures in bacteria.
Endotoxin
Lipid A of the LPS layer of gram (-) cells acts as _______.
Slime Layer
A glycocalyx that easily sluffs off, loosely attached.
2 rings
How many rings are contained in the basal body of gram positive bacteria?
Facilitated Diffusion
Another name for passive transport.
Bacilli
Plural form of the rod or capsule shape of bacteria.
pink
Gram negative cells appear _____ after the gram stain procedure.
Diplo
The prefix for pairs of bacteria stuck together.
Thick
Do gram positive cells have thick or thin peptidoglycan layers?
Staph
The prefix that identifies grapelike clusters of cells.