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HAVC 10 Midterm
Terms in this set (57)
Which Country is Benin City Located?
What happened during the Phillips Expedition?
In the Phillips Expedition, Benin officials heard that the British were coming and sent a warning telling them to stay away. The British came anyway and were ambushed by Benin. Britain was outraged and launched a revenge mission known as the Punitive Expedition.
What happened during the Punitive Expedition?
The Punitive Expedition was a revenge mission launched against Benin by the British. The Brits framed this mission as one of altruism, saying that the Edo people of Benin were savages who needed to have their minds opened and be civilized. Anyway, The British went to Benin and burned and looted Benin City.
What are the Benin Bronzes?
The Benin bronzes are Cast brass plaques from Benin City that were stolen from Benin by the British during the punitive expedition.
What explanations are given to account for the beauty and technical skill displayed by the Benin Bronzes?
(These were racist European explanations)
Edo people influenced by the Portuguese in West Africa in the 16th century (Read & Dalton)
Made in the past; impossible for a contemporary Edo people to create (R.H. Bacon)
What is syncreticism?
An amalgamation of different cultures, beliefs, or traditions
How do the Fayum mummy portraits reflect syncreticism?
They are Greek portraits attached to Egyptian mummies
Who is associated with the naturalistic style?
Appeles (4th century); was a friend of Alexander the Great who conquered Egypt
The aim of naturalism was to create an accurate portrayal of objects
What are the 4 basic colors used for the portraits?
White, yellow ochre, black and red
Why are the eyes of the subjects important?
The gaze stares directly at the audience which makes the mummies feel like they are alive in the afterlife
Who named the Nok civilization? Where did this name come from?
Bernard Fagg named it after the village of Nok
What are the common characteristics of the terracotta works?
Large Heads, Almond Shaped eyes, parted lips, elaborate hairdos.
Common poses are: Man sitting with arms, resting on knees, gazing outward
What did Peter Breunig, Nicole Rupp, and their team find during the excavations?
20 iron implements
What are the two explanations given for the presence of iron in the Nok civilization?
It could have been brought across the Sahara by North African travellers, or West African travellers developed it independently
What are the two sources of information presented to analyze the works from Ile-Ife?
Comprehension of Yoruban cosmos, Early Ife history and leadership
Who is King Obalufon II?
Ife's 46th king who was exiled by the Oranmiyan and then reinstated with the help of the Obatala, Last ruler of Obatala dynasty and first ruler of Odudua dynasty
What is the Ogboni Association responsible for sustaining?
Sustaining indegenous rights and Ife trade
What distinguishes the Obatala/1st dynasty works from the Odudua/2nd dynasty works?
Presence of facial marks = obatala, lack of facial marks = odudua
Which photographer is best known for following and photographing youth culture in Bamako, Mali?
Which monarch commissioned a carte de visite in France?
Which photographer labeled Asante women as "fetish girls"?
Frederick Grant (lived in James Town, Gold Coast Colony)
Which photographer created self-portraits that would be distributed to potential clients as calling cards?
Which monarch circulated photographs in the mass media to legitimate rule and authority to their country and to the rest of the world?
Emperor Haile Selassie
Which photographer is known for collaborating with clients to create souvenir photographs that would be given to family members?
Listed in the king lists as the last ruler of the Obatala dynasty and the first ruler of the Odudua dynasty
•Helped negotiate a truce between the feuding parties, which is reflected in the art production between the two dynasties
•Identified with the patron deity of bronze casting and regional economic well-being
Responsible for the colonial postcards known as fetish girls
She was the queen of Comoros, France wrongfully attacked her city, she traveled to France and commisioned a Carte de visite and issued an appeal to the ruler of France asking for compensation for the unlawful attack. France declined her request stating that the attack occurred because she had sexual relations with the Frenchmen who was occupying her city.
Female Malinese photographer who opened studio in Accra. She worked for the president and other high profile clients. She also took a lot of portraits of herself wearing fancy and modern clothes. She looked very cool and she placed these photos in her shop window to attract customers and it worked.
Malinese photographer, Commissioned portraits specifically for family members, highly westernized, photographed the upper class
Malinese photographer, photographed primarily candids of youth african culture, doesn't want to be bourgeois like kieta
Ehtiopian Emperor who got exiled to Italy. Before Italian colonialism, the royal portraits pictured him and his wife in more traditional attire. After colonialism and his return from Italy, he had much more westernized outfits in the portraits.
Emperor Haile Silesse
Ethiopian commercial muralist who painted religious events, often for churches, in the mid 20th century
Qes Adamu Tesfaw
A monk and fifteenth century Ethiopian painter who depicted religious figures such as Mary and Jesus
Elements of Masquerade
Head of Makishi
Ceremony/ Initiation of Manhood
Likishi (singular); Makishi (plural)
Word for masqueraders
chases women around while they taunt him. Cannot touch women or they will have a miscarraige or not stop bleeding
Initiation process of young boys and the role of women
Women aren't allowed in the camp after the boys enter manhood, only seen
as an audience for the masqueraders (makishi)
Makishi that dance
Mwana wa Pwo
these feminine masks (Pwo meaning 'woman' - an adult woman that has given birth and Mwana
Pwo meaning 'young woman' - youthful, feminine beauty) are used to pay homage to female
ancestors believed to be responsible for the fertility of the community. Literally means child of
Woman, a guy is dressed as this character that is utilized for a woman masquerade
Female character played by man with container on head, wears hair that represents wig,
mimes catching fish
And places fish in container
the pig: Female pig, mimes pig like behavior, can be chased away by woman audience if
They do not portray femininity accurately
Masqueraders who chase
Chief who announces the coming of age of the boys (a week ahead of time, which is as
Long as it takes for them to make millet beer), and reappears as a mad man on the festival of the final
Day, dancing on the shoulders of men until he falls, and also dancing in high places like termite
mounds. One chizaluke per boy in camp
Women's society of the Mende entrusted with the education of young girls
The main aim of the Sande is to prepare girls for marriage and motherhood.
represents Mende womanhood visually and can act politically as a
representative for Mende women
Sowei (pl. Soweisia)
highest rank in Sande society; also the name of the masker
big, important or Sande sowei
Ndoli Jowei (Sowei who dances)
Appears three times, first after clitoridectomy, second during making of gani (special dish containing medicinal herbs), third during ti sande gbua(they pull sande; 'pulling'). ndoli jowei is basically the guardian of the sande process. She also appears at the deaths of important community figures and she punishes males who transgress the laws of sande.
Lo Gue is said to have been an amusement for children of leading Zara families who later transformed it into a public celebration of distinguished, deceased Zara Muslims. The term kokori also brings to mind the moment when Zara families came together, both as Muslims and as a community that shared white masks.
toys/ the children all have fun
represents a spirt who is capricious, mischevious, taunting and alluring. The Gyinna Gyinna carries a whip and may occasionally lash out at audience members although it is rare. wears white primarily so you can see it at night. most important masquerade character
Where does lo gue take place?
Where does Mukanda take place?
Where does Sande take place?
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