The Endocrine System
Terms in this set (47)
Endocrine system (know all hormones and glands/ their affects).
acts with nervous system to coordinate
and integrate activity of body cells
Endocrine system influences...
metabolic activities via hormones transported in blood
Endocrine system responses
occur more slowly, but tend to last longer than those of the nervous system
the study of hormones and endocrine organs
Comparison of the Nervous System (NS) and Endocrine Systems (ES)
-NS initiates response rapidly, ES initiates responses slowly.
-NS = short-duration responses, ES long-duration responses.
-NS acts via action potentials and neurotransmitters, ES acts via hormones released into the blood,
-NS acts as specific locations determined by axon pathways, ES acts as diffuse locations--targets can be anywhere blood reaches.
-NS neurotransmitters act over very short distances, ES hormones act over long distances.
-produces nonhormonal substances (e.g: sweat, saliva).
-have ducts to carry secretion to membrane surface.
ES helps to regulate
-metabolism and energy balance.
-contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle fibers.
-growth and development.
-operation of reproductive systems.
location of endocrine glands
pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland (master), thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovary, and testis.
Hormone only affect...
target cells that have specific receptors to bind to a given hormone
what is hormone secretion is controlled by?
-signals from the NS.
Interaction of Hormones at Target Cells
Multiple hormones may act on same target at same time
one hormone cannot exert its effects without another hormone being present.
example: reproductive hormones need thyroid hormone to have effect.
more than one hormone produces the same effects on a target cell, causing amplification.
example: glucagon and epinephrine both cause liver to release glucose.
one or more hormones oppose(s) action of another hormone.
example: insulin and glucagon.
How is the hypothalamus connected to the pituitary gland?
via stalk called infundibulum (funnel-shaped cavity/structure).
technical term for pituitary
How many hormones does the pituitary gland secrete?
at least eight major hormones
posterior pituitary (major lobe)
composed of neural tissues that secretes neurohormones.
Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
posterior lobe, along with infundibulum.
anterior pituitary (major lobe)
(adrenohypophysis) consists of glandular tissue.
hormones PRODUCED in the hypothalamus and RELEASED in the posterior pituitary include...
2. antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
stimulates contraction of the uterus and ejection of milk from the breasts
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
stimulates water reabsorption by kidneys and constriction of arterioles (aka, vasopressin).
the more ADH, less urine.
-ADH deficiency (so more urine) due to damage to hypothalamus or posterior pituitary.
-Must keep well hydrated.
type one and type two, insulin deficiency.
syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)
-Retention of fluid, headache, disorientation.
-Fluid restriction; blood sodium level monitoring.
contain exocrine and endocrine. majority in the body is exocrine--why? because
anterior lobe of pituitary gland
is glandular tissue
vascularly connected to hypothalamus via hypophyseal portal system.
hypophyseal portal system
a system of blood vessels in the microcirculation at the base of the brain, connecting the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary
Hypothalamus secretes what?
releasing and inhibiting hormones to anterior pituitary to regulate hormone secretion.
Tropic Hormones of Anterior Pituitary
(tropins-TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH) regulate secretion of other hormones.
Growth Hormone (GH)
major growth hormone.
actions of growth hormone
-triggers liver to break down glycogen into glucose.
-increses blood levels of fatty acids for use as fuel and encourages cellular protien synthesis.
-GH stimulates most cells to enlarge and divide, but major targets are bones and skeletal muscle.
Regulation of secretion of GH
GH release or inhibition chiefly regulated by hypothalamic hormones GHRH and GHIH.
growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
Stimulates GH release, triggered by low vlood GH or glucose.
growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
inhibits release, triggered by increase in GH.
what is hypersecretion of GH caused by?
anterior pituitary tumor.
Hypersecretion of GH in children
results in gigantism (can reach height of 8 feet).
Hypersecretion of GH in adults
results in acromegaly (over growth of hands, feet, and face).
Hyposecretion of GH in children
results in pituitary dwarfism (height of only 4 feet).
Hyposecretion of GH in adults
usually causes no problems.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Stimulates the normal development and secretory activity of the thyroid.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Lutenizing hormone (LH)
stimulates milk production
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Anatomy and Physiology - TEAS Science | PrenursingSmarterPro TEAS Guide
Quiz 1: Terms
Ch. 16 Review
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chapter 16 learning curve
Lab 18 incomplete (add images and fxn)
Lab 17 incomplete (add images and fxn)
Lab 16 incomplete (add images and fxn)