Social Psychology Gilovich
All of the chapters and class material
Terms in this set (502)
1) Social Psychology (chapter 1 intro begins)
the scientific study of the feelings, thoughts and behaviors of individuals in different social contexts such as dyads, groups and organizations
2) Channel Factors
certain situational circumstances that appear unimportant on the surface but that can have great consequences for behavior, either facilitating or blocking it; or guiding behavior in a particular direction. Important to take into account because individual differences weren't good predicting factors in many experiments
internal factors, such as beliefs, values, personality traits, or abilities that guide a person's behaviour.
interpretation and inference about the stimuli or situations we confront.
5) Fundamental Attribution Error
the failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on behaviour, together with the tendency to overemphasize the importance of dispositions or traits on behaviour.
6) Gestalt Psychology
based on the German word "Gestalt" meaning "form" or "figure". This approach stresses the fact that objects are perceived not by means of some automatic registering device but by active, usually unconscious, interpretation of what the object represents as a whole.
7) Prisoner's dilemma
a situation involving payoffs to two people in which trust and cooperation lead to higher joint payoffs than mistrust and defection. The game gets its name from the dilemma that would confront two criminals who were involved in a crime together and are being held and questioned separately. Each must decide whether to "cooperate" and stick with a prearranged alibi or "defect" and confess to the crime in the hope of lenient treatment.
generalized knowledge about the physical and social world and how to behave in particular situations and with different kinds of people.
schemas that we have for people of various kinds that can be applied to judgments about people and decisions about how to interact with them.
9) Natural Selection:
an evolutionary process that molds animals and plants such that traits that enhance the probability of survival and reproduction are passed on to subsequent generations.
10) Theory of mind
the understanding that other people have beliefs and desires.
11) Parental Investment
the evolutionary principal that costs and benefits are associated with reproduction and the nurturing of offspring. Because these costs and benefits are different for males and females, one sex will normally value and invest more in each child than will the other sex.
12) Naturalistic Fallacy
the claim that the way things are is the way they should be.
13) Independent (Individualistic) Cultures:
cultures in which people tend to think of themselves as distinct, social entities, tied to each other by voluntary bonds of affection and organizational memberships, but essentially separate from other people and having attributes that exist in the absence of any connection to others.
14) Interdependent (Collectivistic) Cultures
cultures in which people tend to define themselves as part of a collective, inextricably tied to others in their group and having relatively little individual freedom or personal control over their lives but not necessarily wanting or needing these things.
The tendency to estimate an event as more likely when its probability is presented as a ratio between large numbers, and less likely when its probability is presented as a ratio between small numbers
The Milgram Experiment
Experiment described as a "study of learning"
Participants instructed to shock another participant for any wrong answers
The other participant is a confederate who never receives any real shocks
Shock level increased for each wrong answer
Shock levels ranged from 15 volts (slight shock) to 450 volts (danger: severe shock)
During the experiment, the confederate begins to scream in pain and demand that the experiment end
Later, the confederate stops making any sounds, indicating he may be possibly injured or dead
The experimenter, wearing a white lab coat, instructs the participant to continue with the experiment
Milgram Study results
Despite potential harm to another person, 62.5 percent of participants completed the experiment
Originally it was predicted that less than 1 percent of people would follow instructions until the end
Participants were of different ages and social classes
Same effects were found for women and men
Classic example of the power of the situation
Participants did not intend to harm another person, yet behaved in accord with the situation
culture and human behavior
Despite many human universals, there is cultural variation in how universals are expressed. There are cultural differences in self-definition
Independent (individualistic) cultures
Think of self as distinct social entity
Ties to others are voluntary
View personal attributes as constant
Interdependent (collectivistic) cultures
Think of self as part of a collective
Interconnected to others, with little emphasis on individual freedom or choices
Where individualism is more prevalent
Individualism is more common in Western cultures
Europe, United States, Canada, and Australia
Believe important attributes linked to the self
Value individual distinction
where collectivism is more prevalent
Collectivism is more common in non-Western cultures
East Asia (China, Japan, Korea), South Asia (India, Malaysia), Latin America, and Africa
Believe important attributes linked to relationships with others and group membership
Self viewed as overlapping with close others
Experiment: The power of the situation and helping
Hypothesis: A major cause of offering to help another person is whether one is in a hurry
Research method: participants were chosen who were expected to be helpful (seminary students). Primed to think about helping by being asked to prepare a talk on the good samaritan. Some participants were told they had to rush, other condition told they had plenty of time. Participants passed a victim in obvious need of help. Only 10% in hurry helped, 60% not in a hurry helped.
Conclusion: the mundane fact of being in a hurry is such a powerful situational factor that is overrides people's good intentions. (example of channel factor)
Construal and the prisoner's dilemma
when called the game "wall street game", the majority played competitively, and when called "community game" most played cooperatively. Didn't matter if had been identified as a competitive or cooperative person
Automatic vs. Controlled Processing
People's construals of situations are often largely automatic and unconscious
Automatic and unconscious processing
based on emotional factors, faster
how we can carry out procedures without our awareness, automatic processing
how we can form beliefs without even being aware, freud, that's why social psychologists can't just ask people why they did things need to observe them to uncover the real meaning
Conscious and systematic processing
controlled by careful thought, much slower
mentioning words about elderly
causes people to walk more slowly without them realizing it
Hindsight Bias (chap 2 begins the methods of social psychology)
Tendency to be overconfident about one's ability to have predicted a given outcome after already knowing the outcome.
The feeling that "I knew it all the time."
Moreover, people overestimate what they themselves and others actually did know in foresight at particular situation.
Hindsight Bias Experiment
Participants were asked to estimate the probability of various possible outcome of on Nixon's trip to China (1972).
2 to 6 weeks after the visit same subjects asked to recall the probabilities of the original predictions. Results showed that participants remembered having given higher probabilities than they actually had to occurred events.
The main tool in Social Psychology is empirical research
For instance, research on romantic attraction indicates successful couples are more typically more similar than different (that is, birds of a feather do flock together)
The feeling that you "already knew" the results of a social psychology experiment research are unjustified
What social psychology teaches us
Social psychology can explain many behaviors that may seem surprising
Social psychology can reveal many ways in which our perceptions are often inaccurate or mistaken (our blind spots)
Social psychology shows that much of our behavior is influenced by factors of which we are often unaware (e.g., the power of situation).
Involves observing participants in social situations.
Attempts to systematically observe behaviors.
Behaviors may be recorded and categorized.
May involve additional measures like interviews and questionnaires
Brickman studies life satisfaction in three groups
people who won the lottery, paraplegics, people who didnt experience extreme life events. The lottery winners in the short term had extreme happiness and paraplegics had extreme despair, but in long term there was no large difference between the groups in life satisfaction
Research that examines the relationship between variables without assigning participants to different situations or conditions
The Experimenter measure the dependent variables (E.g., Level of Sport activity, degree of smoking).
Enable us to point out on specific relationships but we cannot make inferences about causes of behavior
correlation does not equal cuasation
Correlation determines that two things are related but not that one variable causes changes in the other, because of the lack of manipulation. Helpful in alerting us to various possibilities for causal hypotheses about the nature of the world but they don't tell us about the direction of causality
external variables may explain correlations
A correlation between two variables may actually be caused by a third variable
For example -
Need for achievement can predict both education and income but cannot predict IQ.
Researchers have no control over characteristics, choices, and behaviors of the participants
The participants, not the researchers, determine the levels of the variable being studied (Smokers vs. Non smokers). Problem that arises when the participant, rather than the investigator, selects his/her level on each variable, bringing with this value unknown other properties that make causal interpretation of a relationship difficult. Problem in correlational research
Research that involves assigning participants to different situations or conditions.
Participants should be randomly assigned to different conditions
Experiments allow for causal inferences about how different conditions influence behavior
benefits of experiments
Conditions are controlled or manipulated by the researcher
Behaviors are systematically measured
Comparisons of how different manipulations affect behavior allow researchers to determine causal influences of behavior
Independent variable=The variable that is manipulated by the researcher
The independent variable is hypothesized to cause changes in the dependent variables
Dependent variable=The variable that is measured
Often a change in behavior, feelings, or evaluation
Control condition=A condition identical to the experimental condition but absent from the independent variable
Random assignment to condition ensures that individual differences are evenly distributed across conditions. Can infer that differences between experimental and control groups are due to the experimental manipulation and not to differences between the types of people that were in each condition
Concerned with trying to gain knowledge in its own right. Aim is to gain greater understanding of a phenomenon
Concerned with using current understanding of a phenomenon in order to solve a real-world problem
to observe at close range.
Social psychologists observe social situations in a semi formal way /taking notes and interviewing participants) but they typically design additional research to verify the impressions they get from participant observation.
refers to the method of research that looks for evidence tat is found in archives of various kinds.
most common type of study in social psychology uses this method, either by interviewing or asking to fill out a questionnaire.
•important to be RANDOM SAMPLE
• A haphazard sample (i.e getting people to be part of the survey by asking people as they are coming in/out from the library) runs the risk of being biased in some way- including too many of one kind of person and too few of another kind
•The number of people needed to get a reasonably accurate result on some question is essentially independent of the size of the population in question
a study conducted over a long period of time, which is periodically assessed regarding a particular behavior.
naturally occurring events or phenomena having somewhat different conditions that can be compared with almost as much rigor as in experiments where the investigator manipulates the condition
external validity in experiments
There are weaknesses in experimental studies as well- sometimes experiments are a bit sterile and so removed from everyday life that it can be hard to know how to interpret them (poor in external validity).
When the purpose of the research is to generalize the results of an experiment directly to the outside world external validity is crucial.
When the purpose of the experiment is to clarify a general idea/theory external validity is unimportant.
an experimental setup that closely resembles real-life situations so that results can safely be generalized to such situations
•I.e Milgram experiment- most of us will probably never be put in a similar situation
•Poor external validity isn't always fatal, sometimes experimenters strip down situations to its bare essentials on purpose as a way to make a theoretical point, that would be hard to make with real-world materials.
one of the best ways to ensure external validity, an experiment set up in the real world (that resembles a laboratory experiment), usually with participants who aren't aware that they are participating in a study of any kind.
in experimental research, confidence that its the manipulation variable ONLY that could have produced the results.
•The experimental situation is held constant in all other respects, and participants in the various experimental conditions don't differ on average in any respect before they come to the laboratory
•Requires that the experimental setup seem realistic and plausible to participants.
in preliminary versions of an experiment, asking participants straightforwardly if they understood the instructions, found the setup to be reasonable, and so forth. In later versions, debriefings are used to educate participants about questions being studied.
•Pilot studies (preliminary) often provide useful information about the experiment design
•Debriefing participants is also routine for the purpose of education.
-help ensure they pass the various criteria of internal validity
the degree to which the particular way we measure a given variable is likely to yield consistent results.
•Typically measured by correlations between 0 and 1
Measurement validity- the correlation between some measure and some outcome that the measure is supposed to predict
-help ensure they pass the various criteria of internal validity
a measure of the probability that a given result could have occurred by chance
When we have an empirical result such as the finding that there is a correlation between 2 variables or the finding that some independent variable affects a different variable in an experiment we can test the statistical significance.
A finding has statistical significance if the probability of obtaining the finding by chance is less than some quantity (usually 1 in 20 or .05)
Statistical significance is primarily due to
•The size of the differences between groups in and experiment or the size of a relationship between variables in a correlational study
•The number of cases the findings is based on
→ The bigger the difference or relationship and the larger the number of cases, the greater the statistical significance
Institutional Review Board (IRB)- ethical concerns
a university committee that examines research proposals and makes judgments about the ethical appropriateness of research.
•Research conducted in universities HAS TO go through the IRB
•If some aspect of the procedure is deemed overly harmful, that procedure MUST be changed before the study can be approved
participants willingness to participate in a procedure or research study after learning all relevant aspects about the procedure/study.
•Practiced followed for most psychological research as well
research in which the participants are misled about the purpose of the research or the meaning of something that is done to them
•Impossible to get informed consent
•So exceptions are made for this kind of research and if there is a good reason to deceive participant it will generally be allowed by IRB's
Experiment about honor differences in the U.S.
Hypothesis: members of a culture of honor, u.s. southerners, will respond with more anger and aggression than northerners
Research method: participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire and take it down a long narrow hallway When the participant passed a student he would yell *******.
Results: Southerners responded with more facial and bodily expressions of anger when insulted than northerner's and their testosterone levels increased.
Conclusion: Southerners are more biologically prepared for aggression.
The Social Self
three principles of social psychology
1.social situations have a very strong impact on behavior.
2.if a situation is perceived as real, it is likely to have real consequences.
3.people wish to justify their actions and preserve or increase their sense of positive self worth.
the self concept
The sum of our beliefs about ourselves.
sources of self knowledge
-Self perception about behavior
-Influence of others
biological disposition in personality development
Five-factor model of personality
Five traits that are basic building blocks of personality
Openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
Traits are highly heritable and are linked to specific biological processes
family influence and sibling dynamic on personality development
-Diversification-Siblings may take on different roles in the family to minimize conflicts
-Birth order may influence personality traits-Older siblings are often more responsible and supportive of the status quo (e.g., Leaders), younger siblings are often more rebellious and open to new experiences (e.g., creative artists).
heritable traits run in families
Big Five personality traits are highly heritable
Genetic heritability can be determined from twin studies
Identical twin are 100 percent genetically identical
Monozygotic: from one zygote
Dizygotic: from two zygotes
Therefore, the influence of genetic factors on personality traits can be estimated by examining the differences between identical and fraternal twins
Fraternal twins are 50 percent genetically identical
Dizygotic: from two zygotes
Fraternal twins are as genetically similar as any other two siblings (50 percent genetically identical on average), but share a more similar environment because they are born at same time
monozygotic twins resembles each other more in their extraversion and neuroticism than do dizygotic twins, who only share half their genes
independent view of self
Self seen as a distinct, autonomous entity, separate from others and defined by individual traits and preferences
interdependent view of self
Self seen as connected to others, defined by social duties and shared traits and preferences
gender and the self
-Across cultures, men generally have more independent, and women have more interdependent, views of self
-Women likely to refer to relationships when describing self
-Women more attuned to external social cues whereas as men more attuned to their internal responses
why differences between cultures
-Differences may be due to socialization
-Cultural stereotypes, parental feedback, educational treatment
-Evolution may contribute to gender differences
-Independent views of self may advantage males in acts like physical competition and hunting
-Interdependent views of self may advantage females in acts related to maintaining social bonds and care giving
situationism and the self
Aspects of the self may change depending on the situation
Sense of self may shift dramatically depending on whom we are interacting with
For instance, may feel different about the self when interacting with authority figures than when interacting with subordinates
We identify what make us unique in each particular context, and we highlight that in our self definition
For instance, age may seem more important to self-definition if you are surrounded by much older people
-American children define themselves according to how they are unique and different from their classmates
social comparison theory
-The hypothesis that we evaluate ourselves through comparisons to others
-Downward social comparisons may boost self-esteem by making us feel better about the self
-Upward social comparisons may motivate self-improvement
In World War II African-American soldiers stationed in Southern United States exhibited higher morale than those stationed in Northern states.
In the south--Compared with local non-enlisted African-Americans, whose situation was worse than that of the recruits.
In the North-->Compared with local non-enlisted African-Americans, whose situation was better than that of the recruits.
olympic gold medalists comparing themselves experiment
H: people's emotional responses to events are influenced about their thoughts of what would have been.
RM: videotaping olympic medalists and had people judge how happy they looked
R: they found the bronze (3rd place winners) looked much happier in comparison to the silver, second place winner
c:the silver is just thinking how they are not gold and the bronze is just happy to have gotten an award.
Most Westerners tend to have a positive view of the self
Tend to rate the self as better than average on most traits
Weight abilities we excel at as more valuable
influence of others
Knowledge about the self helps organize how we behave in different situations and with different people
Beliefs about the roles and duties we assume in different groups
Beliefs about our identities in specific relationships
For instance, who you are as a son/daughter feels different than who you are as a boyfriend/girlfriend
Beliefs about our identity as members of important social categories
Examples could be identity based on citizenship, ethnicity, gender, profession, and so on
The tendency to elaborate on and recall information that is integrated into our self -knowledge
For instance, better memory for a list of adjectives if considering whether the adjectives apply to the self
Tendency to judge other people's personalities according to their similarity or dissimilarity to our own personality.
For instance, If you view yourself as intelligent you may judge others strongly by how intelligent you perceive them to be
self-discrepancy theory, higgins
Behavior is motivated by cultural and personal moral standards
Individuals want to resolve discrepancies of who they are with who they want to be or ought to be
the person we believe ourselves to be
Ideal self: the person we wish we could be
Ought self: the person we feel should be
discrepancy between ideal and actual self
self causes feelings of depression, disappointment, shame and sadness.
discrepancy between actual and ought self
causes feelings of anxiety.
Focus on positive outcomes and moving toward becoming our ideal self
Focus on negative outcomes and attempt to avoid not living up to our ought self
Overall positive or negative evaluation we have of ourselves
Enduring level of regard we have for ourselves
Fairly stable across time
Dynamic and changeable feelings about the self felt at different moments in time
- better than average effect
-Research suggests that most well-adjusted people may have slightly unrealistic views about themselves -
overweighing positive views of the self
a common positive illusion, Believe positive traits are more true of the self than negative traits
Believe positive traits are unique but negative traits are common
Our memory is selective....
distortions in memory of grades
compared people's grade letter A, B, C, D to their actual grade and found that the lower letter grades had more distortions in their memory of grades and not accurate recall
Exaggerated perceptions of control
a common positive illusion, Believe we have more control over events than we do (Langer, 1975)
-like when trying to roll small number roll dice in smaller range of motion, as if it matters
self control and ego depletion
Regulating behavior requires mental energy, but mental resources are limited
State where previous acts of self-control drains ability to control future behavior
For instance, participants who controlled behavior by eating healthy fruits instead of delicious cookies gave up faster when they had to solve a puzzle later - Lemonade experiment
a common positive illusion, Believe positive events are more likely to happen to oneself than to other people
"It will not happened to me"
"I am not part of the normal distribution"
Overconfidence in our knowledge
People believe that they know more than they actually know. In other words, "those who know more don't know more about how much they know."
Positive illusions about the self are more common in individualistic cultures
Members of collectivistic cultures are less likely to report enhanced feelings of control, less likely to rate themselves as better than average, and less likely to be unrealistically optimistic
Individualistic cultures place greater value on positive views of the self than collectivistic cultures
Positive illusions promote feelings that the self is unique, independent, and good
Importantly, not all illusions about the self are positive....same processes may lead also to negative consequences --
Self perception of attitudes: inference from the difficulty of retrieval (experiment)
-Participants were asked to write down things the like about their relationship with their partner.
-Some participants were asked to write down 2 things they like about the relationship, and others were asked to write down 10 things they like about it.
-Two other experimental groups listed 2 things or 10things they disliked about the relationshipwith their partner.
-Pretest shows it is easy to produce 2 examples of things we like or dislike, but it is difficult to produce 10 examples.
-Satisfaction of the relationship wasassessed.
results of above experiment
-Participants who are asked to write down 10 things list more but experience more difficulty in retrieving items than participants who list two things.
-They infer "if it is so difficult for me to recall good/bad things then there probably aren't that many good/bad things, therefore the relationship isn't that good/bad.
Self-evaluation maintenance model
People are motivated to maintain positive self-esteem
Positive self-evaluations maintained through reflection and strategic social comparisons
basking in reflected glory
Enhancing self-esteem by identifying or claiming affiliation with a successful group.
Students were more likely to wear their university affiliated apparel after a victorious football weekend and more likely to use the pronoun "we" after a successful athletic weekend than if their team had lost
Motivations for friendships
Prefer friends who don't outshine us in domains contingent to our self-worth
Having friends who excel in other domains can boost self-esteem by allowing us to bask in their reflected glory
May maintain consistent view of the self by selectively paying attention to information consistent with self-view
May associate with people who provide preferred feedback about the self
Use identity cues to display our self-view to others
Attempts to control how other people will view us
For instance, by managing how you dress, behave in public, whom you associate with, what you reveal about yourself to others
When interacting with others, we present a public face that we want others to believe
The theory refers to the process through which people regulate their own behavior in order to "look good" so that they will be perceived by others in a favorable manner
monitor their behavior to fit different situations, adjusts behavior to situation, attempt to control the beliefs other people have of them (manage impression)
More cross-situationally consistent (behave according to their inner feelings, opinions or moods)
If we (a) are unsure of our success on a task we value and (b) feel we should do well, we may claim or create a handicap to our own performance.
We do this in order to (a) build an advance excuse for possible future failure that might otherwise damage our self-esteem and/or (b) be able to claim additional credit should we nevertheless succeed.
Forms of self-handicapping
Not practicing/ studying
Taking drugs and alcohol
Stress, report of symptoms of physical illness
In contrast to the view of the self as a fixed element of our personality (stable, changes slowly) - there are different types of "selves", which can be influenced, and change from one situation to the other.
General term for theories about how people explain the causes of events they observe
Cause - Effect relationship
Often make immediate inferences about other people based on their physical appearance
Which in turn influences our behavior towards other people
Attributions are often made very quickly based on limited information
Snap judgments can
be accurate, but most accurately
predict what other people will think
most accurate when judging how attractive, likeable, trustworthy a person is
-Explanation for the cause of your or another person's behavior
-Internal attribution-Behavior is explained by aspects of the person - personality, intentions (e.g., confused )
-External attribution-Behavior is explained by aspects of the situation - contextual factors, (e.g., traffic Jam)
-The type of attribution made will influence how you respond to the situation
-For instance, if your friend cancels plans to get together with you, thinking your friend must not be feeling well feels better than thinking your friend doesn't like hanging out with you
Fundamental attribution error (FAE)
Tendency to believe that a behavior is due to a person's traits or disposition despite the situational causes present
The tendency to underestimate the role of external factors, and
overweigh the contribution of internal factors in making attributions
For instance, inferences may be made about someone's true personality even when we are aware that their behavior resulted from an assigned role
fundamental attribution error study
half of the participants read a pro-castro essay and the other an anti-castro essay, even though some people were assigned a certain topic and others wrote about their actual beliefs, the people reading the essays rated the authors attitude based on the stance they took even when they were told that the stance was assigned, meaning they had no choice about which one to write about
the perceiver induced constraint paradigm experiment
a questioner and a responder were assigned questions and answers to read. One set of answer assigned was selfish and the other one was altruistic. Even though, questioner knew that the answers were scripted they still judged the people who read altruistic answers as being more altruistic
(reason for FAE)
Often attribute things to what appears to be most obvious cause
Fundamental attribution errors may occur because people are often more salient than the surrounding context
Motivation to believe in a just world, reason for FAE
Motivated to believe that people get what they deserve in life
Good things happen to good people, bad things to bad people
Fundamental attribution errors may be reassuring because we feel less vulnerable to external factors influencing our life outcomes
Automatic and controlled cognitive processing
Dispositional attributions are often made automatically (system 1)
Situational attributions require more cognitive thought after weighing information about the context (system 2)
What is the process of infering dispositions?
(A)In theory, we should simultaneously weigh both the person's behavior and the surrounding context to arrive at an explanation of a behavior. (B) In actuality, we first automatically characterize the person in terms of the behavior and then sometimes make an effortful adjustment for the context to arrive at an explanation of the behavior.
experiment that demonstartes actor- observer differences
when asked why am I here studying psychology students focused on aspects of the major for their own choice, but on personality characteristics for their friend's choice
experiment about rating general knowledge
a person in class was given time to come up with general knowledge questions and then asks a random person in class. She is coming up with the questions and has time to think about them from her general knowledge doesn't mean she has more than the person answering the questions but class and the contestant end up rating the person who asked the questions as having much more general knowledge
Attributions may differ between the person engaging in a behavior and a person observing the behavior
The actor is disposed to explain behavior as due to the situation
The observer is disposed to explain behavior as due to dispositional qualities of the actor
For instance, when explaining the choice of major for themselves and their friends, students focused on aspects of the major for their own choice, but on personality characteristics for their friend's choice
Causes of actor-observer differences
Perceptual salience-As actors, the situation is salient; as observers, the person is salient
May ignore the influence of dispositions when explaining our own behaviors
Lack of information about the intentions and past behaviors of the actor
Culture and Context
Collectivistic cultures may be more attuned to contextual factors
When judging the facial expression of an individual, collectivists were more influenced by facial expressions of other people in the scene
Rod and Frame Test
Individualists perform better at making absolute judgments, but collectivists perform better at making relative judgments
Relative judgments require paying attention to the length of a line in context with the frame that surrounds it
The fundamental attribution error is less prevalent in collectivistic cultures
Individualists more likely to attribute behaviors to dispositions
Collectivists more likely to attribute behaviors to the situation
Coaches in the United States were more likely to attribute wins to abilities of the players whereas coaches in China were more likely refer to difficulties experienced by the other team
Differences in attribution made even for non-human targets
when looking at the same picture judged it differently
In one study, participants were shown an animation of a single fish swimming away from a larger group of fish
American participants were more likely to attribute behavior to individual choices of the fish, and Chinese participants, to the actions of the group
For people who are connected to both independent and interdependent cultures, attribution styles may change depending on the cultural context
Evidence from Hong Kong
Hong Kong is heavily influenced by both China and Western countries like the United States and the United Kingdom
Residents of Hong Kong can switch between independent and interdependent attributions styles
Made more dispositional attributions after being primed with images related to Western culture
Made more situational attributions after being primed with images related to Chinese culture
Tendency to attribute failures to external causes and success to internal causes
For instance, athletes may attribute losses to bad referees but victories to talent and hard work
Self-serving biases can boost and maintain positive self-esteem
A person's habitual way of explaining events
internal vs. external, Stable vs. instable, global vs. specific
Internal versus external
Degree that cause is linked to the self or to the external situation
Stable versus instable
Degree that the cause is seen as fixed or as something that is temporary
global vs. specific
Degree that the cause is seen as affecting other domains in life or is restricted to affecting one specific domain
Pessimistic attribution style
Internal, stable, global attributions habitually made for negative events
"It's my fault," "I'm never going to be able to," "I am no good at anything."
Pessimistic attribution styles predict lower grades and poorer physical health later in life
does explanatory style early in life predict later physical health?
Later in life it does by the time reach 55 you are much less healthy and they found that it is a significant predictor, positive outlook means you are more likely to take care of yourself
gender differences in attribution
Boys more likely to attribute failures to external causes
Girls more likely to attribute failure to internal causes
Differences may be due to elementary school socialization
-Study found that teachers gave negative feedback related to intellectual ability to girls and negative feedback related to nonintellectual aspects of behavior to boys
-Boys may be inadvertently taught that failures are due to lack of effort while girls may learn that failures are due to ability
Behavioral attributions are made by weighing information about the potential causes of the behavior
-consensus, distinctiveness, consistency
What would most people do in the given situation
Whether an individual's behavior is unique to a given situation or whether that person would behave the same way in a different situation
Whether an individual acts the same way in similar situations
External attributions likely if consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency are high
For instance, a person yelling loudly during a football game
Since most people would (high consensus)
If the person doesn't yell in other situations (high distinctiveness)
The person yells throughout the game or during other football games (high consistency)
Assume the person's behavior is a product of the situation—External attribution
Internal attributions likely when consensus and distinctiveness are low but consistency is high
For instance, a person laughing at a funeral
Since most people wouldn't (low consensus)
If the person laughed in other honorable situations (low distinctiveness)
The person continued to laugh throughout the funeral or at other funerals (high consistency)
Assume there is something unusual about the person --internal attribution
Discounting and augmenting principles
Discounting: the existence of any additional reason that could account for
the effect reduces the likelihood of any given reason
Augmenting: the existence of reasons that could have prevented the
effect increase the likelihood of the cause that could produce it.
Salesperson: "it looks fantastic on you"--Cause A: looks good, Cause B: she gets percentage on sales Discounting the likelihood of cause A
Thoughts of what might have been, could have been, or should have been "if only" something had been done differently
Causal attributions can be formed by comparing real outcomes to imagined alternatives
Emotional reactions to counterfactual thoughts increase depending on how easy it is to imagine the alternative
May feel more personally responsible for failure depending on how easy it is to imagine the alternative
Counterfactual thinking at the Olympics
Although it seems counterintuitive, bronze medalists are often more satisfied with their accomplishment than silver medalists
Silver medalists may imagine a gold medal as the alternative
Bronze medalists may imagine receive no medal as the alternative
sensitivity to context and framed line task
participants are shown a target stimulus and after a brief period of time they are asked to draw a vertical line in an empty box. In the relative task the line must be drawn in the same proportion to the original box and in the absolute task the line must be the same exact length as the original line even though the boxes are different sizes. Japanese are better at relative task and americans are better at absolute task.
adjusting automatic characterizations experiment
participants had to watch a viedo-tape of an anxious woman. Half told she was answering anxiety-inducing questions and the other half was told she was answering normal questions about what kind of books she likes. Hypothesis-all participants would automatically assume she is an anxious person, but the innocuous anxiety-inducing condition would then deliberately adjust their initial characterization. However, another condition was added that half the participants were kept busy by being told to memorize words. Gilbert predicted that the extra demand on their attention would prevent them from deliberately changing their initial attribution.
Study- tutoring student that has difficulty with material
after an initial round of tutoring the student is assessed. If the student performs well then the tutors made an internal attribution for their improvement, but if they did poorly then they blame the student, external attribution, instead of themselves. But this may be rational if the teacher tried many different study tactics
Study interview, discounting and augmentation
Participants witnessed a person either act extroverted or introverted in an interview, half told he was interviewing to be a submariner (position better for extroverts) and the other told astronaut (more introvert job). When they rated the people, they rated the out-of-role person more extremely than the person who fit the role (an introvert for an introvert job they rated less as an introvert than an introvert for an extrovert job). In role behavior they rated more mildly
social judgement important to study
Research on social judgments examines how people make decisions, interpret past events, understand current events, and make predictions for future events
The social judgments made will ultimately influence behaviors
-often are inaccurate and lead to biases
reality vs. perceived reality
in the song the child's intuition is that more is better than less, so he replaces the dollar for two quarters but in reality he made a mistake but he didnt know. The father knows he made this mistake
two models in decision making
normative and descriptive
have a formal and organized theoretical framework that suggests the optimal (correct) answer for specific problem.
describe how people actually solve specific problems and what intuitions guide their behavior.
Information based on personal experience or observation
Information that comes from other sources, like gossip, news accounts, books, magazines, the Internet, and so on
Personal experiences may be unrepresentative
-There can be biases, for instance, making judgments about what a country is like from having visited only a few people and places
-People assume that even small sample is representative...
in a study they asked students how comfortable they are drinking alcohol, their friends, and the average student
demonstration of Pluralistic Ignorance: (A) University students believe that drinking alcohol is more popular among their peers than it really is. Because of this belief, they censor their own reservations about drinking, thus furthering the illusion that alcohol is so popular. (B) Princeton University students' ratings of their own and other students' comfort with campus drinking habits at Princeton.
a situation where a majority of group members privately reject a norm, but assume (incorrectly) that most others accept it..."the situation where 'no one believes, but everyone thinks that everyone believes.'".
examples of pluralistic ignorance
-Difficult topics in class-No one asks questions because everyone else is pretending they understand
-Popularity of drinking in colleges and universities-Students believe drinking is more popular than it is
-Reluctance to communicate with new social groups
Contact between two groups may be avoided because each group fears being rejected by the other
Memory is not a passive recorder
Memories are actively constructed-they can change over time, and are influenced by outside forces
Memory is biased by inference and expectation
Very vivid memories of important events show frequent errors
-your amygdala is activated because it was an emotional experience
flase memory experience
convinced students that pluto licked their ears when they visited disney land even though he never did
When information presented first in a list has disproportionate influence on subsequent judgments
When information presented last in a list has disproportionate influence on subsequent judgments
asch experiment on primacy effect
he asked participants to rate a person's character. In one condition he listed the more negative traits first and in the second condition he listed the more positve characteristics first. They were the same list but the people in the second condition rated the person more favorably
reasons for order effects (framing effects)
Easier to pay attention to first and last items
Items presented first influence construal of later items
May not remember items inconsistent with initial expectations
In surveys about life satisfaction and romantic life satisfaction, stronger correlations if questions about romantic life are asked first (framing effect)
positive and negative framing
Negative information draws more attention than positive information
Information framed in negative ways will elicit stronger responses
In decision making, a loss is more aversive than a missed opportunity=Loss aversion
house money effect
when get money from casino, you don't feel like it is your money so you are more likely to risk it
people at the last part of gambling are more likely to try to pay back their losses and break even so they take more risks
The tendency to test an idea by searching for evidence that would support it
Can lead to false beliefs because people may fail to attend to disconfirming information
knowledge vs. confidence level (going to ask on final)
your knowledge remains stable over time but your confidence level increases?
dual modes of information processing
system 1-(automatic controlled processing)Rapid responses based on associations that come automatically to mind
Intuitive information processing can be done in parallel
Many things can be intuitively processed at the same time
Rational- System 2
Slower responses based on controlled, rule-based reasoning
Rational information processing must be done serially
Based on cognitive operations that must analyzed one at a time
People need to make decisions constantly, such as risk perception, financial investments, insurance and etc...
People employ several rules of thumb to assess probabilities -- Heuristics
These heuristics are fast and frugal, helping us to achieve "good enough" accuracy using limited resources.
However, under certain conditions these heuristics lead to significant biases in a consistent fashion.
a heuristic, reasoning the more object X is similar to Y, the more likely we think X belongs to Y group
-The problem is that similarity is not always in line with the probability rules.
heuristic, The easier it is to consider instances of class Y, the more frequent we think it is
like if jumps into our mind right away
Information about the relative frequency of events
E.g., Base-rate neglect occurs when judging a likely choice of profession from individual personality traits
-we make errors when we don't attend to these
example of demonstrating heuristics
participants were asked to rate academic disciplines either in terms of likelihood that Tom W. chose that graduate field, the perceived similarity between the description of Tom W. and the prototypical student in that field, or the number of graduate students enrolled in each field. The ratings of likelihood and how similar Tom is to that field were almost identical. Failed to take into account base-rate info, like how popular is that major
insensitivity to sample size
-According to the "law of large numbers" the size of a sample should greatly affect the likelihood of obtaining the same results in the population.
People, however, ignore sample size
-People believe that even small samples are highly representative of the populations from which they are drawn .
misconception of chance
People expect random sequences to be "representatively random" even locally
E.g., they consider a coin-toss run of HTHTTH to be more likely than HHHTTT or HHHHTH
even though the odds are the same, it stays 50/50 everytime
the gambler's fallacy
After a run of reds in a roulette, black will make the overall run more representative (chance as a self-correcting process??)
example of availability heurisitc: ease of retrievability
Classes whose instances are more easily retrievable will seem larger
For example, which is more prevalent: words that start with r or words with r as the 3rd letter?
Salience affects retrievability
E.g., watching a car accident increases subjective assessment of traffic accidents
Biased estimates of contributions to joint projects (problem with availability)
Easier to think of examples of what we did to contribute- they found it is not only with positive things but negative things also, like you will be more likely to say that you instigate arguments more than your husband
Biased risk assessments (availability bias)
May overestimate frequency of dramatic events
Risks of dying from catastrophic events are overestimated
fluency (availability problem)
The feeling of ease associated with processing information
Some stimuli are easier to process than others
For instance, unfamiliar or irregular words are harder to process than simple and familiar words
Tendency to be unrealistically optimistic about the time needed to complete a task
Errors with the representativeness heuristic result from "inside" thinking
Failing to take broader or outside perspective on the judgment
Planning fallacy results from failing to take outside perspective
Focus is on steps needed to complete the project at hand and may fail to consider how long similar projects have taken in the past
-The belief that two variables are correlated when in fact they are not
-Joint operation of the representativeness and availability heuristics
-Representative examples are better remembered and come to mind more easily
-Easier to remember "hits" than "misses"
-Overestimate frequency of representative examples
examples of illusory correlations
Use of projective tests to make psychological diagnoses
Expectation that paranoids would draw people with unusually large (or small) eyes in the Draw-a-Person Test
Study found that perceived connections between clinical diagnoses and the Draw-a-Person Test may be illusory
All heuristics are quite effective, usually, but lead to predictable, systematic errors and biases
Understanding biases may-
Teach us about the underlying cognitive mechanism
Help us to find debiasing technique
Data-driven information processing: judgments are made by taking in information piece by piece
Information processing guided by prior knowledge: information is filtered and interpreted by expectations
Coherent clusters of information organized and stored together mentally
A knowledge structure consisting of any organized body of stored information
schemas guide attention
-Attention is selective
-May pay attention only to things we expect to see
Gorilla costume study
Give more attention to familiar schemas
Schemas influence memory -- may influence how information is encoded into memory and how it's retrieved from memory
Schemas that were recently activated or partly activated can influence judgments
For instance, playing an ultimatum game in a room with cues of the business world led to more competitive behavior
Schemas can influence judgments even when the schema activation occurs outside our conscious awareness - subliminal priming
biases in info presented secondhand
a) Sharpening: emphasizing important or more interesting elements in telling a story to someone else.
b) Leveling: eliminating or deemphasizing seemingly less important details when telling a story to someone else.
-led people who hear a story secondhand to make even more extreme judgements
below the threshold of awareness
can't say if they are real or not, just because there is evidence for one repressed memory doesn't give proof for others
study testing people's accuracy of memory
asked students to fill out questionnaire about their attitude toward busing to achieve racial integration. Then two weeks later participated in a discussion group either all opposed or for busing. There was a confederate in each group to change people's opinion with good arguments. He did then they filled out a questionnaire again and not only did their attitudes change but when asked to recall their original attitudes they distorted them to fit their new attitude
aren't proven to be effective yet people who go claim to be satisfied. They distorted their memories to think they were worse off before they went than they actually were so they thought they improved because they had the expectation they would
Attitudes, behavior, and rationalization
spitzer's scandal with prostitute
govenor of NY who had a relationship with a prostitute and when he resigned he apologized saying he went against his value, he was being harsher towards others in his judgements to reduce his dissonance
predicting behavior from attitudes
attitudes are poor predictors of behavior
at a time when there was tension between america and china, when he traveled to hotels with a Chinese couple the hotels were very hospitable. But later when he wrote a letter asking if they would be willing to be hospitable to a chinese couple 90% said they werent welcome because they were chinese but they already had them...there is no good correlation between attitude and behavior
1. Attitudes may conflict with other influences on behavior
Social norms, other conflicting attitudes, and situational factors may also influence behavior
I like the environment but I like big cars ....
2. dual process
Attitudes toward X may be inconsistent
Emotional and cognitive aspects may conflict
-like this guy who used to be an actor in israel and ran for treasurer in israel-people probably had mixed feelings towards him because he isn't really qualified when people thought about it but he is attractive and a good speaker
3. Attitudes may be based on secondhand information
Research shows attitudes based on firsthand experience better predict behavior
Firsthand experience may contradict secondhand information
-you only learn the good things
4. General attitudes may not match specific targets
Attitudes better predict behaviors when specific attitudes toward a specific behavior are measured
The more specific the attitude, the stronger the correlation.
-because when you think more specifically take more things into account
study asking people about birth control
How do you feel about birth control?
How do you feel about birth control pills?
How do you feel about using birth control pills?
How do you feel about using birth control pills during the next 2 years?
-they asked these questions and the more detailed the questions got the closer it was to predicting their actual behavior
5. Some behaviors may be automatic
-Automatic, intuitive information processing may guide behavior in ways that escape conscious awareness
-Behavior may be unconsciously influenced by aspects of the situation of which we are not aware
-Study found that priming the concept of "elderly" made participants walk more slowly
priming activation of creativity
compared to logo of apple and windows, people primed with apple were more creative
asked couples will you be together in nine months from now?
one condition they asked what is your intuition and the other condition they asked what are your reasons. the intuitions could predict better
what can we do?
1. Be aware of: factors that conflict with our attitudes (social norms, situational factors), inconsistent attitudes ("I appreciate him but hate his arrogance")
2. base our attitudes on firsthand experience, when possible
3. if we have a specific desired behavior - let's change our general attitudes to specific ones (e.g. not "I'll go to the dentist", but "I'll go to the dentist this week, I'll get the phone, check the rout to the clinic)
behaviors are better predictors of attitudes
because attitudes may change in order to be consistent with behaviors, behaviors are more concrete because they can't be changed
story of hatem
very intelligent, good-looking arab-israeli said he couldnt find an apartment to rent in tel-aviv because of his race even though he is in the place that is supposed to be the most left wing liberal in Israel-->attitudes not matching behavior
Water allocation task
Task was to locate water an arab neighbor in three conditions Outgroup Cooperation, Individual level, and Group level
In the individual condition political orientation did not predict behavior. There were no differences between left and right wing
In group condition political orientation strongly predicted choices, in groups the left acted like the left and vice versa
cognitive dissonance theory
Theory that inconsistencies between thoughts, feelings, and behavior create an unpleasant mental state (cognitive dissonance) that motivates mental efforts to resolve them
how dissonance happens
-Inconsistency between two cognitions produces dissonance (e.g., between an attitude and a behavior)
-Dissonance is uncomfortable, creates a drive to reduce the tension
-Least important or most easily changed element will change (usually attitude)
-UNLESS--there is some external justification for the inconsistent cognition (the counter-attitudinal behavior)
1. I want to lose weight 2. I have just eaten an entire box of chocolates
"I don't need to lose weight this badly"-Change attitude
"How many chocolates did I eat? The box was half-empty"-Change perception of behavior
"Chocolate is highly nutritious"-Add attitudes consistent with behavior
"What do I care about being a little fat, life's too short"-Detract from the importance of behavior
"I had no choice, my host would have been insulted if I hadn't eaten all the chocolates"-Detract from controllability
behaviors are permanent
Because behaviors cannot be taken back, cognitive dissonance often causes changes in thoughts and/or feelings to rationalize behaviors
decisions and dissonance, if already made a decision
Decision dissonance typically is resolved by emphasizing the positives and minimizing the negatives of the selected choice
Also resolved by, emphasizing the negatives of the unselected choices and minimizing the positives
For instance, if choosing between living in a big city (Tel-Aviv) or small village (Vitkin):
you will justify your decision. If live in tel-aviv you will say how great is it to go to museums to minimize how frustrating traffic is, and if you chose to live in a small village you will say how great it is to not deal with traffic (Minimize: not being able to go to fancy restaurants and museums)
Attempts to reduce dissonance produced by the effort or cost spent to obtain something unpleasant or disappointing
Greater effort expended leads to more dissonance and more attempts to rationalize behavior
Study found that women who had to undergo the most severe initiation to join a discussion group reported the most liking for the group even though the discussion was actually uninteresting
Induced compliance (also called forced compliance)
Subtly getting people to act in ways inconsistent with their attitudes
Often leads to a change in attitude in order to resolve dissonance
dollar bill study of dissonance
-Participants first completed a long and boring task
-Then participants were either paid $1 or $20 to lie to another person and say the task was really fun
-Then participants were asked how much fun they really thought the task was
-Participants paid $20 thought the task was boring, but participants paid only $1 said the task was actually enjoyable
why does induced compliance work?
-Lying to someone for $1 caused more dissonance than lying to someone for $20; $1 is not a lot of money to reward acting against one's beliefs
-So attitude changes to match behavior and resolve cognitive dissonance
"I didn't really lie [for only $1], that task wasn't so bad after all."
forbidden toy study
-Children are given a set of toys and asked to rate each one. Then told that they could play with any of the toys, except for one. Told that playing with the forbidden toy would make an adult "annoyed" (mild threat) or "very very angry" (severe threat). All children resisted playing with the forbidden toy. Later, children were asked to rate the toys again. Many children given a mild threat found the toy less desirable than before, but children given a severe threat found the toy more desirable Why?
-Mild threats of punishment are a weak reason for resisting something that is desired, so attitude changes to rationalize behavior
-"That toy isn't so great after all". Severe threats are a good reason to resist a behavior, but may result in the behavior seeming even more appealing
free choice promotes dissonance
Choosing to engage in a behavior that is inconsistent with beliefs will cause dissonance
Forced behavior does not cause dissonance since the reason for the behavior is clear ("I didn't have a choice")
No need to rationalize behaviors we didn't choose
Insufficient (external) justification
-Dissonance may occur when the reason for a behavior is weak or unclear
-Payment of $1 may be insufficient justification to lie
-Annoying an adult may be insufficient punishment to resist playing with a favorite toy
With sufficient justification (that is, more money, larger threat), the behavior doesn't need to be rationalized
Freely chosen inconsistent behaviors may not cause dissonance if there was no negative consequence of the behavior
Driving too fast will not cause dissonance if everything went okay....
If nothing happened as a result, there is nothing to rationalize
-Dissonance may not occur if the negative consequence was not something that could be foreseen
-You accidently give someone food they are allergic to
you had no knowledge of the allergy
Will you then rationalize your behavior?
Cognitive dissonance may be universal across cultures, but may be aroused by different situations
For individualists, cognitive dissonance may result from threats to how people see themselves
For collectivists, cognitive dissonance may occur from threats to how people believe they are seen by others
culture and dissonance study
Euro-Canadians (individualists) experienced more dissonance when making a choice for themselves than for a friend
Asian-Canadians (collectivists) experienced more dissonance when making a choice for a friend than for themselves
Theory that people infer their attitudes from observing their behavior
If the prior attitude is weak or ambiguous, people may use their behavior to understand their attitude
Self-perception theory suggests a different interpretation of the cognitive dissonance research
Cognitive dissonance theory argues that people change attitudes to fit their behavior because inconsistencies are mentally unpleasant
Self-perception theory argues that an unpleasant mental state is not needed as explanation for the results of the cognitive dissonance studies (would know if dissonance is experienced if more arousal)
Self-perception argues that people didn't change their attitudes
instead they inferred their attitudes from their behavior in the situation
"I told them that the task was fun, so it must have been fun 'cause there wasn't any other reason to say it was."
Cognitive dissonance may occur when behavior doesn't fit a preexisting attitude and the attitude is important to the self-concept
Inconsistency is threatening to self-concept so dissonance is aroused
Self-perception may occur when attitudes are weak or ambiguous
No strong prior attitude → no sense of inconsistency → no dissonance
Many attitudes are relatively weak and changeable
System justification theory
Theory that people are motivated to see the existing political and social status quo as desirable, fair, and legitimate
System justification is another example of rationalization
-People are motivated to believe the world is a fair place
-Belief in a just world is psychologically reassuring
-"If I do good things, the world will be good to me."
-Dissonance aroused by belief that bad things can happen to good people
-Especially since most of us believe we're good people
System justification reduces dissonance
Promote the virtues of the status quo
"If I could go to school and get a job, then homeless people could do the same thing."
Positive or compensatory
"Sure women make less money
for the same job, but they are
liked better at work."
Terror management theory (TMT)
Theory that the knowledge of mortality produces an anxiety that leads people to search for symbolic immortality
Predicts that attitudes will change when mortality is made salient
Ways to achieve symbolic immortality
View self as connected to broader culture, worldview, and social institutions
Stronger identification with family, country, religion, and so on
"I may die but America will be here long after I'm gone."
View self as a good valued member of the culture
"I'm a good American, and a piece of me will live on."
Tests of TMT use mortality salience manipulations
Possibly by having people write about death, read information about death, or look at images associated with death
Often compared to a pain salience condition
Think of your death versus think of feeling pain at the dentist
Effects of mortality salience
More commitment to ingroups and more hostility to outgroups
Increased hostility to people who criticize one's country
More punitive to people who challenge prevailing laws
During the 2004, election mortality salience made people more favorable toward Bush and less favorable towards Kerry
Possibly because Bush was already president and was seen as defending the country from outside threats
Emotions differ from moods or emotional disorders
Emotions are brief
Lasting for only seconds or minutes
Moods can last for days, and emotional disorders can last weeks, months, or years
emotions are specific
Emotions are responses to specific events
For instance, being afraid of a bear or being angry at an insult- we have "intentional object"
The cause of moods or emotional disorder may be unclear
"Did you wake up on the wrong side of bed today?
Why you are so depressed?
emotions motivate behavior to achieve goals
Goals related to survival and social functioning
fear motivates escape from threats
anger motivates correcting an injustice
guilt motivates making amends for wrongdoings
Emotions have psychological effects that drive behavior
For instance, strong urges to run, hide, or fight
Emotions have physiological effects that help the body achieve those goals
For instance, "fight or flight" responses that increase heart rate, respiration, and blood flow to muscles
Emotions are biologically based behavioral adaptations meant to promote survival and reproduction
Physiological responses to emotions (e.g., facial expressions, heart rate) should be cross-culturally universal
All human have the same facial muscles
and express emotions similarly across culturesHuman facial expressions resemble displays of other primates. ...
Emotions are influenced by views of self, social values, and social roles, which vary from culture to culture
Emotions should be expressed in different ways in different cultures
Both evolutionary and cultural approaches are correct
Emotional responses may be innate and universal, but cultures may have different emotional accents and display rules
human facial expressions are not learned
People who are blind from birth would show the same facial expressions as sighted people, despite having never seen a facial expression
Blind and sighted athletes show similar facial expressions of pride after winning a competition
Facial expressions are recognized cross-culturally
Cultures never exposed to the West or Western media (for example, the Fore of Papua New Guinea) can accurately identify expressions of happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, and fear shown by Westerners
U.S. college students accurately identify facial expressions shown by the Fore
Cultures do show variation in expression of emotions
Culturally specific ways that emotions are expressed
ex-Universality and Cultural Variation in Emotional Expression: People in the United States and India agree in their judgments of a prototypical embarrassment display (A), but only people in India recognize the ritualized tongue bite as a display of embarrassment
Oxytocin and trust
Oxytocin is a hormone and neurotransmitter involved in care giving and monogamous mating in non-human animals
Oxytocin is also released during human childbirth, breastfeeding, and orgasm
Oxytocin may encourage trust between strangers
During a trust game, a participant is given an amount of money and then asked to share that money with a stranger. The amount of money given to the stranger is then tripled. The stranger then chooses how much money to give back to the participant.
the trust game
Subjects are paired. Each subject in each pair is given $10. Second movers are told to keep their $10
First movers can either:
Keep their $10; or
Give some or all of it to the second mover. Any amount given is multiplied by 3 by the experimenter
Second movers can either:
Keep all of any amount received; or return part or all of it to the first mover. All of the above is common information given to all subjects.The game is played only once
predictions of the economic man in trust game
-Since second movers care only about their own material gain, they will keep any tripled amount sent by first movers
-Since first movers care only about their own material gain, and know that second movers have the same kind of preferences, first movers send nothing
-Zero returned and sent is the subgame perfect equilibrium of this game, given the economic man assumption about preferences
-The predicted outcome is inefficient: Each subject pair is predicted to get $10 in payoff ... just the endowment ... when it could have gotten as much as $20
trust game played in two conditions
Half of the participants play after inhaling Oxytocin
Half of the participants play after inhaling fresh air
people were more than twice as likely to give away maximal amounts to a stranger in the trust game after inhaling oxytocin
Many studies have found that people often unconsciously imitate others
Especially likely to mimic the emotions of close others
Laugh when others laugh, blush when others blush
Over the course of a year, the emotional responses of college roommates became more similar
Roommates who were closer friends mimicked each other more than those who were less close friends
Moods have more influence on complex judgments than simple judgments
For instance, making a general judgment of people (are they likeable, or trustworthy?) than a simple judgment (what color are their eyes?)
Mood and life satisfaction study
Study asking people to give ratings of their life satisfaction found that higher ratings were given on sunny days than on rainy days
Difficult to analyze information from an entire lifetime, so current mood may influence judgment
However, when people were asked about the weather first, there was no effect of weather on judgments
Realizing that current mood is influencing judgments, people can make corrections
processing style perspective
Positive and negative emotions lead to different types of information processing
Positive moods lead to more top-down thinking
More reliance on schemas and heuristics
Negative moods lead to more bottom-up thinking
More systematic and analytical thinking
Especially for emotions linked to sadness
Why do positive moods lead to more top-down processing?
Mood maintenance, reduced cognitive effort, and feelings-as-information: difficult decisions require cognitive work and cognitive work may hamper a good mood, so happy people may take shortcuts in order to perpetuate their good mood. Feeling-as-information: people in good moods may feel good and trust their immediate, spontaneous judgment. "I feel good so the answer feels correct."
Sad moods may lead to less stereotyping than other moods
Sad moods lead to more bottom-up thinking, so there is less reliance on stereotypes and schemas
Two-factor theory of emotion
Theory that emotions are made of two components
An unexplained physiological arousal
A cognitive explanation of the arousal
Primary appraisal stage
Initial, quick appraisal made of an event or circumstance
Primary appraisals lead to an initial pleasant or unpleasant feeling
Secondary appraisal stage
Later appraisal, which concerns why we feel the way we do and how we would like to respond
Secondary appraisals lead to specific emotions like fear, anger, pride, guilt, and so on
Schachter and Singer's (1962) classic study
Participants told that the study was testing effects of a drug on vision
In reality, the drug was adrenaline
Participants were given an injection of adrenaline and were either informed or uninformed about the effects
Some told injection would make them aroused (symptoms like racing heart)
Some not told about the effects of the injection
Participants then interact with a confederate who is acting either very happy and euphoric or very angry and irritable
The confederate provides an explanation for arousal
"Oh he's happy, maybe I'm happy too"; "He's mad, and so am I."
Predictions for schachter and singer
Uninformed participants would report emotions similar to those displayed by the confederate
Informed participants would not be influenced by the confederate because they already had a cognitive explanation
"My heart is racing, but I know that's just drug they gave me."
Results schachter and singer
Uninformed participants did report higher levels of happiness when interacting with the happy confederate than informed participants
Interpreted as evidence that cognitive explanations of physiological arousal are important components of emotion
Misattribution of arousal
When the source of an arousal is incorrectly attributed to the wrong cause
The adrenaline causes the arousal, but uninformed participants assume their feelings are due to something else in the situation
Peak and end Rule (Kahneman)
Assessments of emotional experiences are most influenced by the peak moment of emotion and the ending emotion
For instance, judging how funny a movie is, is most influenced by the funniest moment and the way the movie ends
Experienced vs. Remembered Utility
"Our mind does not make movies; it takes snapshots"
Rather than guess the total amount of suffering, people recall the worst instant, and the last instant.
If you increase the amount of suffering, but arrange for the last minutes to be less intense, people report the longer period as less painful
Predicting how we will feel during or after a particular event in the future
For instance, how happy or unhappy we'd be after a romantic breakup
Affective forecasting is often incorrect
People often assume that they will like or dislike a future event more than they actually do when it occurs Impact Bias
Tendency to underestimate our resilience during negative life events
Painful, difficult experiences often are less upsetting then we expect them to be
For instance, people often expect relationship breakups to be more traumatic and depressing than they actually are
Tendency to focus on only one aspect of an experience or event when trying to predict future emotions
May neglect thinking about how we will feel after the initial event or the importance of other events in determining our feelings
For instance, a happy wedding day doesn't guarantee a satisfying marriage. However, when young people imagine their life together....
Daniel Gilbert and his colleagues asked whether people are accurate in their judgments of how happy they will be following a romantic breakup. The results were consistent with their claims about biased affective forecasting.
people predicted that a romantic breakup would make them less happy than was actually the case
Refers to the large number of ways that people impact one another, including changes in attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or behaviors resulting from the real or imagined presence of other people
changing one's behavior in response to real or imagined pressure from others (e.g., fasion trends)
responding favorably to an explicit or implicit request by another person (i.e., favor)
social influence in which the less powerful person in an unequal power relationship submits to the demands of the more powerful person (e.g., following the order of police)
the nonconscious mimicry of the expressions, mannerisms, movements, and other behaviors of those with whom one is interacting
Average number of times per minute participants performed an action (face rubbing, foot shaking) while in the presence of someone performing that action or not. the more the other person shook their foot the more likely the person was to join
-Preparation for social interaction
-Mimicry is stronger for people with a drive to affiliate with others
-People like individuals that mimic them better than those that don't
-People who are mimicked engage in more prosocial behavior afterward
-Mimicry may build social rapport and lead to pleasant social interactions
The Autokinetic Effect Sherif,
Participants seated in an otherwise completely dark room were asked to state aloud their estimates of the distance a tiny dot of light moved.
Individuals who made judgments alone came to fix their estimates within a specific range, which varied from one to ten inches.
When people made their judgments with other people, however, their personal estimates converged with those of other group members until a consensus was reached.
The Autokinetic Effect Sherif, results
The men eventually accepted a socially shared estimate in place of their own idiosyncratic standard.
Moreover, in subsequent individual sessions subjects still relied on the group's standard, suggesting that they had internalized the norm.
Sherif, by capitalizing on the natural ambiguity of the autokinetic situation, succeeded in creating a social norm in an experimental setting.
-so if one person said 5 and the other 1 their answer would be an average of the others
The evaluations of others are perceived as information about reality
Conformity is the result of a belief in the informative value of other people.
Informational social influence more likely when
Situation is ambiguous or difficult
We feel low in knowledge or competence about the topic
-in reality the light did not move but because the situation is ambiguous, people respond as if other people have more info
normative conformity, ash, study
In the basic Asch paradigm, the participants (6 confederates and one real participant) were all seated in a classroom.
They were asked a variety of questions about the lines such as to state the length of A, to compare the length of A to an everyday object, which line was longer than the other, which lines were the same length, etc.
The group was told to state their answers to each question out loud.
The confederates always provided their answers before the study participant, and always gave the same answer as each other. They answered a few questions correctly but eventually began providing incorrect responses.
normative study results
Average conformity rate: 37%
Percentage of participants who had at least one conformist response in half of the relevant cases: 50%
Percentage of participants who were not conformist in any of the relevant cases: 25%
Why did you give in to pressure? Types of explanations provided by participants
-Normative influence (the most common type of influence): "I knew I was giving the wrong answer, but I did not want to be different."
-Questioning one's personal judgment: "I thought that maybe I'm wrong, I did not sleep well, my eyesight has gotten worse recently, sometimes I don't see things ."
-Perceptual suggestion: "I was convinced that this was the right answer. Line C really seemed to be the most similar to the test line."
Factors Affecting Conformity Pressures
a. Group Size
b. Group Unanimity
c. Expertise and Status
f. Difficulty of the Task
Types of Conformity in experiment
Informative conformity (Sheriff's experiment(- People believed the conformist answers were correct.
- The result: a "deep" influence, which is also found in non-public speaking situations, and is generalized to other contexts.
Normative (Motivational) Conformity (most of Asch's participants)- People did not believe that the conformist answers they gave were correct.- The result: a "superficial" influence, that disappears in non-public situations and is not generalized to other contexts.
Reality is clear-cut
Most of the participants are confederates (6), and there is only one real participant
The result: a "superficial" influence
Reality is ambiguous
All the participants are real
The result: a "deep" influence
Moscovici thought that minority influence operated in a different way to majority influence. Minority influence causes the majority to reassess their opinion, and that it actually changed underlying beliefs. This was in contrast to normative influence, which generally had little lasting effect. The results of the experiment seemed to back up his opinion.
Minority Influence: Consequences
-"Deep" influence on attitudes: minority group members, as opposed to majority influence, persuade the participant and do not produce compliance out of fear of sanctions.
-The growing influence of the minority attitude:
-Minority position becomes more popular
-Social pressure against minority's attitudes decreases
Conditions that Increase the Effectiveness of Minority Influence
-Minority members have high status and legitimacy in the group. They do not differ from group members on other dimensions.
-Minority members are united (there are no "traitors" or "defectors").
-Minority members express their deviant position consistently, clearly and simply, in such a way that they can not be ignored or seen us having an unimportant position.
The Effect of One Bad Apple on the Barrel
As part of a group we are exposed to others' dishonest behavior.
Simple examples include academic dishonesty, athletes using illegal drugs...
Project A - Hypotheses
H1 (The "Cost-Benefit" Prediction)-For a constant reward, reducing the likelihood of being caught cheating may increase the magnitude of individuals' dishonesty.
H2 (The "Saliency of Ethicality" Prediction)-Drawing people's attention to moral standards could reduce dishonest behavior
H3 (The "Social Norm" Prediction) Social norms can increase the level of dishonesty in some situations but decrease it in other situations. (Descriptive Norms vs. Injunctive Norms)
Study 1 - Matrix Task method
Participants - 141 Carnegie Mellon University Students. The matrix task in four conditions:
Shredder + Ingroup confederate
Shredder + Outgroup confederate-they got more questions right when someone in the in-group cheated and they cheated less when someone in the outgroup cheated because they didnt want to be like him (the outgroup cheating level was as low as the contorl group)
-fudge factor in cheating, that only cheat until the point that you can still feel like a good person, so only cheat a little bit-outgroup cheating reduced level of cheating but didn't eliminate it
There is more conformity in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures
Empirically, this effect has been demonstrated in perception experiments (e.g. Asch), and also in experiments examining conformity in attitudes
In collectivistic cultures conformity has a more positive connotation than in individualistic cultures.
Factors that did not influence obedience level in Milgram's experiment (1974)
Age (children, youth, adults)
Country (similar findings were found in different countries)
Factors shown to influence obedience level in Milgram's experiment (1974)
-Perceived authority of the experimenter
Another participant (actually a confederate) taking the role of the experimenter - 20% obedience
The experiment takes place in an abandoned office building instead of Yale University - 48% obedience
-Physical proximity of the experimenter
When the experimenter is not present in the room, and gives directions over the phone - 21% obedience.
-Proximity of the participant to the victim. If the victim is in the same room with the participant ("the teacher") 40% obedience. If the participant ("the teacher") is asked to touch the victim to administer the electric shock - 30% obedience
-Peer pressure-When two out of three consecutive participants (actually, confederates) refuse to shock the victim - 10% obedience.
-stepwise progression. In each step there is a decrease of only 15 volts.
-Personality traits of the participant. Variables such as authoritarianism are related to greater obedience.
Forces Influencing Obedience-"Tuning in" the victim
Variations of the Milgram experiment that varied the proximity of the learner.
-No visual or audio feedback, audio feedback, same room (visual and audio feedback), and touch proximity
-As the learner became more present (increased feedback and proximity), the rate of obedience (shocks delivered) decreased
Tuning out" the authority-influences obedience
Variations on the social power of the experimenter
Experimenter gives orders over telephone, experimenter has lower status, experimenter is contradicted by another experimenter
As the social power of the experimenter decreased, rates of obedience decreased
Means of influence
1. Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
2. Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
3. Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct -- Conformity
4. Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority - Obedience
5. Likeability: we say yes to someone we like
6. Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability
The reciprocation rule:
If X does us a favor, we should do him /her one in return
In fact, we are obliged to the future repayment of favors, gifts, invitations and the like.
Leakey & Lewin (1978): "We are human because our ancestors learned to share their food, and their skill in an honored network of obligation"
Door-in-the-face marketing technique
Make a large request that is refused, followed by smaller request
Psychologist Bob Cialdini, when asked to buy a $5 lottery ticket, refuses. Then he is asked to buy a $1 candy bar and agrees (even though he doesn't like chocolate that much)
Why it works: reciprocal concession; "You compromised with me, so I'll compromise with you."
Adding something additional to the offer
Examples: many "as seen on TV" ads that include special bonuses
Why it works: we feel like we are getting more than expected; the added bonus increases pressure to reciprocate
Overweighting of free (Ariely et al. , 2010)
Make a small request that is accepted, followed by a large request
Safe driving study
Homeowners are asked to place large sign in front yard about safe driving (only 17 percent agreed)
Another group is first asked to put a small sign in the window, then two weeks later asked to place the large sign in their front yard (76 percent agreed)
Charities often first ask for very small donations, then later ask for bigger donations
-Why it works: need for consistent self-perception; agreeing to the first request makes it easier to agree with a second request
Can arrive at extreme situations in step-by-step process: a "slippery slope"
In Milgram study, each increment is only 15 volts, so each one seems like a small step, but step-by-step it gets to an extreme point
Low balling Technique
cancelling the discount after you already have commitment to specific option
Sunk Cost Effect
commitment for specific option only because we already invested time, money or effort in this option
Obedience to other authority figures(nurses and doctors)
22 hospital nurses were asked over the phone by an unknown person identified as a doctor to give to one of the patients in the ward a high dose of an unusual type of medication.
21 out of 22 nurses obeyed (Holfing et al., 1966)
Inducing liking, by:
Condition and association with positive things (beauty, what's hip, food)
Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited
The use of this principle for profit can be seen in such high-pressure sales techniques as only a "limited number" now available and a "deadline" set for an offer. The scarcity principle holds true for two reasons:
Things difficult to attain are typically more valuable. And the availability of an item or experience can serve as a shortcut clue or cue to its quality.
When something becomes less accessible, the freedom to have it may be lost.
three-factor approaches to attitudes
affect, behavior, cognition
When someone smokes I feel disgusted.
When someone smells of cigarettes I seek to avoid him in whatever way.
I know that cigarettes raise the risk for lung cancer by forty times and damage the skin.
Attitude as a one-factor concept
Attitude: the magnitude of appraisal (positive or negative) toward the object of the attitude.
Attitude: a positive, negative or mixed response to an individual (or a group), an object or an idea.
-can be positive, ambivalent (have dual attitudes), indifference, or negative
Often attitudes can be measured with questionnaires
Participants can rate how they feel along a scale
A Likert scale assesses attitudes by giving anchors and a range of possible answers
Example: How often do you watch television?
1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = frequently, 5 = always. Questionnaires are limited by what participants are willing and able to reveal about their attitudes
-Examining how participants respond to different stimuli. Reaction times are faster to more accessible attitudes. Faster reactions equals a smaller response latency. Attitudes that are more central to a person's self-concept will be more strongly linked to other attitudes the person has. (IAT TEST)
The Knowledge Function of Attitudes: study
participants watched the same presidential debate of Carter and Regan. Partisans believe their own candidates prevail in debates, by far as in not even close, very clear winner, and undecided voters was closer to being equal
Can subliminal messages influence behavior?
We do perceive subliminal cues.
But the cues will not persuade to take action unless one is already motivated to do so.
-people who were already thirsty and then subliminally primed were the most affected
Two-process models of persuasion
Elaboration likelihood model
Both models argue essentially the same thing: persuasion can work by changing what we know and believe or by changing how we feel
Elaboration likelihood model
assumes individuals vary in the degree they are likely to engage in elaboration of persuasive messages.
central route to persuasion
Persuasion is influenced by strength and quality of arguments.
Message receivers should be: Attentive, Cognitively active, andCritical
When these conditions are met, messages characterized by strong high-quality arguments have an advantage.
peripheral route to persuasion
Persuasion is influenced by clues that don't necessarily indicate high-quality arguments. People are persuaded on the basis of superficial, peripheral cues.
Message is evaluated through the use of simple-minded heuristics.
The Yale School Approach to Persuasion
Persuasive messages have three components
The who, or the source of the message
The what, or the content of the message
The whom, or the target of the message
Attractive spokespeople are more persuasive, even for topics completely unrelated to attractiveness
Effects of attractiveness are through the peripheral route: attractive people are rated more favorably, and those favorable feelings become associated with the message
Two factors influence a source's likability:
-The physical attractiveness of the source
-The similarity between the source and the audience
Credibility (source characterisitc)
People who are seen as knowledgeable and trustworthy are more persuasive
However, non-credible sources can change attitudes through the sleeper effect
Although a message may not be believed originally, over time the message may be remembered without remembering that it came from an untrustworthy source
The sleeper effect, study on high and low credibility
The message, by itself, must be strong enough to produce a large change in attitudes.
The discounting cue (e.g., low credibility) must be so strong as to inhibit immediate attitude change that would otherwise be produced by the message.
The discounting cue must become dissociated from the message by the time the delayed change is assessed.
Are longer messages better?
If central, the longer the message, the more valid it must be.
If central, message should not be too long.
How discrepant should the message be to have the greatest impact?
The most change is produced at moderate amounts of discrepancy.
An "upside-down "Ω" relationship between discrepancy and persuasion.
Vivid information and identifiable victim effect
-Vivid information can be more persuasive than statistical facts
-Identifiable victim effect
-Tendency to be more influence by information about one specific individual than by information about large amounts of people
-The revelation that actor Michael J. Fox has Parkinson's disease raised charitable donations more than public statistics about the millions of people affected by the disease
contain vivid information and can be very persuasive
But fear-based messages are most effective when combined with instructions on how to avoid negative outcomes
smoking and fear study
-inducing fear about something by showing vivid images reduced smoking substantially more than simply providing instructions about quitting. The most effective though was inducing fear and giving instructions.
positive mood affect
We are more open to persuasion when in a good mood.
How to create a good mood?
Food, beverages, comfortable armchairs, pleasant memories, experience of success, breathtaking views,pleasant music, humor...
pleasant emotions arouse the peripheral processing system
Pleasant emotions distract and impede our ability to think critically.
When we are in a good mood we feel that "all is well": "cognitive laziness" increases.
When we are happy we try to avoid spoiling the mood with critical thinking.
Very few people are consistently easy or difficult to persuade.
People differ in extent to which they become involved and take the central route.
Need for Cognition: How much does one enjoy effortful cognitive activities?
Effects of Need for Cognition:
they are going to be persuaded by strong arguments
One of the biggest predictors of whether people become friends or romantic partners is actual physical proximity. The people we interact with face-to-face are the people with whom we usually form relationships
Effects of proximity can be seen in friendships forming between people of different races and backgrounds
-majority of friendships formed with people of different races or ages were among people who lived on the same floor
In MIT apartments study
A sociometric survey conducted in a student housing development found two-thirds of the friends that people listed lived in the same building as themselves
-residents near stairwells formed twice as many friendships with upstairs neighbors as those living in the middle apartments
-people who lived next door to each other were four times more likely to become friends than people living opposite ends of hallway
availability and proximity
Encountering other people allows for and encourages the formation of new relationships
Of course, encountering others also makes it possible to dislike those people
Knowing that we will interact with someone in the future makes us like that person more
The mere exposure effect
Greater exposure to a stimulus leads to greater liking of that stimulus, including other people
Greater liking due to mere exposure was found for foreign words, foreign symbols, and yearbook photos
Why Mere Exposure Causes Liking
Fluency - Availability Heuristic
Easier to process information about familiar stimuli ---->Pleasant feelings associated with more fluent processing
mere exposure experiment
results: people preferred true images of other people but preferred mirror pictures of themselves, because that is what they are most used to
Repeated exposure to a stimulus without any negative consequence makes the stimulus more pleasant
Signals that the stimuli is safe and non-threatening
Friends and romantic partners tend to be similar in beliefs and other characteristics (attractiveness, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and so on)
A study of romantic couples found that couples were more similar on 66 of 88 different traits than people paired at random.
On no characteristic were romantic couples more dissimilar than random pairs
Effects of similarity may be stronger for demographic characteristics than personality traits
Interestingly, partners in interracial and interethnic couples were found to be more similar in personality traits than couples of the same race or ethnicity
Studies find that we report greater liking of even fictitious people if we peceive them as more similar to ourselves
The belief that "opposites attract" is not largely supported by the research
Not much evidence for the idea of complementarity, that people seek out partners with different characteristics to balance out their own
Even in cases where partners may seem like opposites in some domains (introvert and extravert), they are likely to have many more overall similarities than differences
People who are more physically attractive are often assumed to have other positive traits
Assumed to be more successful, likable, intelligent, happier, and so on
Some evidence that more attractive people are actually happier, more confident, and more satisfied with their lives, but attractiveness is not linked to traits like intelligence
Halo effects may be due to self-fulfilling prophecies
We expect attractive people to have desirable traits, so we may behave more positively toward them, and as a result they may respond favorably, confirming our original positive expectation
early effects of attractiveness
Attractive infants receive more attention from mothers than less attractive babies even before leaving the hospital
Misbehavior by attractive children seen as less problematic than same behavior from less attractive children
Attractive faces are preferred at an early age: children as young as 3 months prefer attractive adult and child faces over less attractive faces
Faces that are more average (less abnormal) are seen as more attractive
Composite faces produced by morphing many faces together are usually seen as more attractive than any individual face
By averaging faces together, the composite face is generally more symmetric and free of any blemishes or other abnormalities
Near times of ovulation, women show increased preference for masculine facial characteristics
During periods of low conception risk, women rate men with slightly feminized faces as more attractive
Prefer men who appear more confident and assertive
New Study -- Higher tips to club dancers during time of ovulation!
-only if women are not on hormonal birth control, do the effects of her menstruation apply
women and cycle effects study
Women's Judgments of Male Attractiveness across the Menstrual Cycle: The photos depict faces that have been altered to be 50 percent more feminized (left) from the original photo and 50 percent more masculinized (right). Women were asked to select the one face they thought was most attractive from a set of five such faces that varied from 50 percent masculinized to 50 percent feminized. The graph shows that the women tended to select somewhat feminized faces overall, but the mean degree of feminization of the selected face was less for women who were at a stage in their cycle when pregnancy was especially likely.
stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination
men and women drivers
found men drivers are actually more reckless drivers than women, women get into a lot of small accidents men get into more dangerous ones, have higher risk of dying in car accidents
Beliefs that associates a group of
people with certain traits
-like cognition, its beliefs
Negative feelings towards
persons based on their
membership in certain groups
-like affect, it is how we feel about them
Any behavior directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group
old fashioned racism
Beliefs about minorities that are clearly dogmatic and readily admitted
Open expression of dogmatic views is now rare in the United States -PC, but...
modern (symbolic) racism
Beliefs about minorities that appear positive, but racism is revealed in subtle, indirect ways
lost email study
they sent out an email as if they were a friend saying they tried to contact them but they cant come to the wedding and the different conditions were different names yoav, yengeti, and muhamad
Not all stereotypes are necessarily negative
Some stereotypes include favorable assessments of abilities
Some groups may be stereotyped as smarter, nicer, or more athletic than others
Race and gender stereotypes often contain a mix of both positive and negative sentiments
Trouble with positive stereotypes
-Can be used to justify holding other negative stereotypes. For instance, may believe that women are kinder and more nurturing but that they are less capable than men. Holding a positive stereotype can be seen to justify or balance out negative stereotypes
-May decrease the value of members that don't fit the positive stereotype
economic perspective-the robbers cave experiment
-Two groups of boys were invited to participate in a summer camp experience. In reality, the summer camp experience was part of a study on intergroup relationships
-During the first week the two groups of boys were isolated from one another. Each group gave itself a name (the "Eagles" and the "Rattlers")
-When the groups were unaware of each other, group activities were directed at building unity and cohesion
During the second week
robbers cave experiment
The two groups were brought together in a competitive tournament.
The winning group would get a medal and a prize; the losing group would get nothing
During the period of the tournament, the groups became hostile toward one another
Raiding each other's camps
Threats of violence and challenges to fights
In the third week of the Robber's Cave experiment, the two groups were brought together to interact in non-competitive ways
However, hostilities did not decrease between the two groups
Non-competitive social contact alone was not sufficient to reduce hostile feelings toward an outgroup
Reducing conflict through superordinate goals
Hostile feelings between the groups were reduced after researchers allowed the groups to work cooperatively
A bus carrying supplies "broke down," forcing the two groups to work together to get the truck started
When two groups feel mutually interdependent, hostility between groups subsides
evaluating economic perspective
Economic perspectives suggest that prejudice can be reduced when groups see themselves as needing to work together to achieve a collective goal
Prejudice will be reduced when working cooperatively can benefit both groups
May explain why racial integration may be more successful in the military than in other domains
Military success requires cooperative action, but success in work and educational domains often requires more competition
Social identity theory (motivational perspectvie)
People derive part of their self-concept from membership in groups
Aspects of self-esteem are dependent on how people evaluate their ingroup relative to outgroups
People are motivated to view their ingroup more favorably than the outgroup...
minimal group paradigm
demonstration of social identities
Group categories are defined along very arbitrary or superficial dimensions
For instance, making groups based on whether people prefer one abstract image over another, or whether they overestimate or underestimate dots on a page
experiments using minimal group paradigm
individuals show preferences for the ingroup even when group distinctions are meaningless
If given a chance to distribute rewards across two groups, they prefer to give more to ingroup
More interested in getting a relative advantage over the outgroup than in maximizing absolute gain for the ingroup
For example, prefer ingroup to get $7 and outgroup to get $3 than for both groups to get $10
basking in reflected glory (more)
Tendency to take pride in the accomplishment of those we feel associated with in some way
Example: local sports teams, success of friends or family member
Derogating outgroups to boost self-esteem
Self-esteem can be bolstered by negative evaluation of outgroups
After receiving negative feedback about self, participants are more likely to endorse negative stereotypes; derogation of outgroup predicts boosts in self-esteem
rating of job candidate study
Self-Esteem: Average ratings of a job candidate's personality and the increase in raters' self-esteem, depending on whether or not the candidate was Jewish and whether the rater had earlier received positive or negative feedback. Participants who received negative feedback derogated the jewish candidate and then it boosted their self-esteem level
motivational perspective evaluation
People process information in terms of categories, including social information and information about the self. As a result, often see social groups in term of "us" versus "them". Motivated to be biased and more favorable toward one's ingroup
-Hostile or aggressive motivations may be directed at social groups seen as lower in power
-Expressing advantage and dominance over a lower power group can boost feelings of self-esteem
Stereotypes as mental shortcuts
Stereotypes are schemas
Schemas influence attention, perception, and memory
Stereotypes help us process social information efficiently
Less effort is required when you know what to expect
More likely to use stereotypes when we are mentally drained
Study found that people used more stereotypes during times of day when they were low in energy
Outgroup homogeneity effect
Members of outgroup viewed as more similar to each other
Impaired ability to view outgroup members as distinct individuals.
"They're all the same."
-stereotypes may be efficient but they are not accurate
-reducing perceived outgroup-homogenity effect decreases discrimination and prejudice towards outgroup
shooter bias experiment
Participants were presented images of black and white people who were either armed with a gun or not. As in a video game, participants were instructed to "shoot" the armed targets and not shoot the unarmed targets
Both white and black participants were more likely to accidentally shoot the unarmed black targets than unarmed white targets
Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion Effect)
Stereotypes may give us expectations about certain groups that lead us to treat those groups in ways that encourage them to confirm our original expectation
For instance, expectations that certain types of students lack capabilities may lead teachers to avoid engaging those students.
as a biased construal
False beliefs about groups may be maintained because we more easily remember the pairing of two distinct events
Encountering minority group members and observing negative behavior are both less frequent events than observing majority group members and positive behaviors, so it may be easier to remember examples of minorities doing negative things
Activation of a stereotype may be automatic and involuntary
Stereotypes may influence behaviors and judgments in ways that are outside conscious awareness
Influence of automatically activated stereotypes can be corrected for if people are motivated and aware of potential biases
suggest that stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination stem from real competition on limited resources.
-can reduce stereotyping when groups see the need to work together for collective goal
prejudice as a bad habit experiment
Participants were primed with "Black" vs neutral words
Read about "Donald" - described in an ambiguous way
Regardless of level of prejudice, those primed with the Black stereotype rated Donald as more hostile than those primed with the neutral words
The stereotypic cognitive structure was put into action (outside of awareness)
Research examined how implicit and explicit racial attitudes of Whites related to behaviors and impressions in interracial interactions.
Explicit and implicit attitudes predict different types of behaviors
Explicit - more controlled behaviors (what you say in a conversation)
Implicit - more automatic (body language)
Explicit and implicit attitudes in action experiment
White participants were first asked to fill out an explicit measure of attitudes towards Blacks. Participants were also asked to complete a measure of implicit attitudes (priming task). they were either primed with white face or black face and then they tested the time it took to say a negative word compared to the white condition. Participants were then asked to interact with a Black confederate. Independent raters rated the interaction on two dimensions: Non verbal friendliness (eye contact, smiles, distance). Verbal friendliness (audio alone). explicit racism was shown in their verbal and implicit expressions was correlated with nonverbal behavior. The Black confederate was asked to rate whether the participant was prejudiced
Participant's level of Implicit prejudice correlated with the confederates' ratings of bias. (Not the explicit measures). The target of prejudice picks up on non verbal cues, and therefore on implicit attitudes
the implicit associations test
Measures the association between two or more concepts in a person's mind.
Key measure: how fast people are in linking certain people to certain attributes?
Faster = stronger cognitive association
Sexism = Reaction time for men/career & women/family - Reaction time for men/family & women/career
0 = no (low) sexism
Less than zero = sexism (faster to associate men/career & women/family than men/family & women/career)
criticism of IAT
. For example, a person may be faster in associating blacks with bad because they know how blacks were portrayed by American society. This cultural knowledge may come to mind when seeing the pairs together. Thus this is reflecting a cultural association rather then a personal one
attitude toward racism task
two other people were in the same room, one black and one white. Then the black person leaves the room while accidentally bumping into the White person's knee. The White person says one of 3 things
"Clumsy N' word"
"I hate it when Black people do that"
Who would you choose as a partner for the task?
-when no comment was made most people forecasted the white partner, and the slight racist comment less than the extremely racist comment
-what people forecasted what they would do was different, they forecasted they would be in more distress than they were
-in reality chose white partner no matter what
People's predictions regarding emotional distress and behavior in response to racism differ drastically from actual actions. Even those who embrace equal right beliefs, may continue to harbor nonconscious negative feelings toward blacks - that can come into play spontaneously
when say not to think about something its harder not to
Fear of being treated and judged according to a negative stereotype about one's group. Occurs when an individual is in a performance situation and is aware that there is a negative stereotype about their group that suggests they will not perform well. Occurs regardless of whether the individual believes the stereotype. Occurs regardless of the accuracy of the stereotype
Participants:117 male and female African-American and European-American Stanford Univ. students.
Stereotype-threatening (diagnostic) condition (did the worst in this condition)
Non-stereotype threatening conditions
Non-diagnostic-challenge (when said it wasnt a diagnostic test)
Helping, hurting, cooperating
Desire to help another person with no benefit to oneself, even at cost to oneself
Ability to put oneself in another person's shoes, to experience the same feelings and emotions
Experienced distress (anxiety, sorrow)
Empathic concern (sympathy, compassion)
negative state relief hypothesis
Helping results from trying to relieve own distress
Helping results from real concern for another person
Empathy for another person can involve experienced distress (feeling similarly unpleasant) and empathic concern (sympathy for the person)
Study of empathy and helping
Participants view a video of a confederate receiving electric shocks. The confederate indicates fear of shocks due to a childhood trauma and is clearly distressed. Participants also feel distressed while watching
Participants are given the option to switch places with the confederate
In the easy escape condition, participants no longer have to watch the confederate getting shocked. In hard escape condition, they have to watch her get shocked if they don't take her place
Although all participants report feeling expereinced distress (it's upsetting to watch her suffer), only participants reporting empathic concern were willing to help by trading places in the easy escape condition
Story of Kitty Genovese
In 1964, Kitty Genovese was murdered in front of her NYC apartment building
As she was being attacked, she screamed for help and several of her neighbors witnessed the crime (38 people)
However, no one intervened to help her or even called the police
Why did people fail to help in such an obvious emergency?
Likelihood that others will
intervene to help in a
situation of need
Diffusion of responsibility
Failure to act because they assume others will act instead
When participants believed that someone was having a seizure, 85 percent helped if they were the only other person present; only 65 percent helped if another person was present; and if multiple people were present, only 31 percent helped
Failure to act because if no one else seems alarmed, we may assume no action is required
Pluralistic ignorance results from informational social influence
In ambiguous situations, we look to others to decide how we should act
When left in a room that began to fill with smoke, 75 percent of participants left to alert an authority, but if other people were present, only 38 percent left to tell someone
People with an obvious need of help are more likely to receive it
similarity to us
More likely to provide help to people who seem more similar to ourselves
gender and help
Women are more likely to receive help from others
Especially true for women dressed in ways that are more feminine and attractive
People may assume women may need more help than men
Male helpers may be more willing to help an attractive woman
environment and helping
More likely to receive help in a rural area than an urban area
like correct payment, help injured, lost child, tell name, give donation
Prisoner's dilemma, cooperation and conflict
Situation where outcome between two individuals depends upon each individuals' independent choice to cooperate or not
Classic story of two prisoners who have to choose between sticking to their story or betraying their partner, without knowing what their partner will do
If they both cooperate, both win. If they both defect, both lose. But if one defects when the other cooperates, one wins big and the other loses big
The most important determinant of whether people will cooperate are their construal about the people they're interacting with
more competitive are more likely to assume that others are competitive
People become more competitive after being primed with words related to hostility
Greater competition when the prisoner's dilemma was played in business context (for example, Wall Street) than when played as a "community game"
the ultimatum game
Situation where one participant is given a sum of money (or other resource) to allocate between him- or herself and another person.
Can choose to allocate the resource in any way
Can keep it all for him- or herself or divide it evenly
-the respondent decides to accept then he gets $2 and the proposer gets $8 or he can reject and they both get $0
-tests cooperative and altruistic behavior
The dictator game
Economics majors were least likely to share resources in an ultimatum game compared to other academic majors
Economics teaches that people should act in terms of rational self-interest
Professional economists were less likely to contribute to public charities than members of other professions
cooperation around the world
People who live in cultures requiring high amounts of interdependence for survival (for example, food sharing), allocated resources more fairly during an ultimatum game than people from other cultures
Start by cooperating, and from that point on do whatever the other person did last
If the other person cooperates, then the cycle of cooperation continues and both benefit
If the other person defects, then you continue to defect until the other person begins cooperating
This simple strategy is optimal because it encourages the benefits of cooperation, but doesn't allow for exploitation
Five principles -
Clear to read
Any behavior aimed at causing either physical or psychological pain
Physical or verbal behavior
intended to hurt someone
behavior intended to harm another, either physically or psychologically, and motivated by feelings of anger and hostility
behavior intended to harm another in the service of motives other than pure hostility (for example, to attract attention, acquire wealth, and to advance political and ideological causes, winning sport competition...)
Higher temperatures are related to higher rates of aggression
More violent crimes occur in summer months
More acts of violence occur in cities that have higher average temperature
One study found that baseball pitchers are more likely to hit batters with the ball as the weather gets hotter-One big confound with the studies of temperature and aggression is that there is more social interaction in general on warmer days.
-Feelings of discomfort caused by the heat may be misattributed to other people
Another example of misattribution of arousal
Evidence that media violence can increase aggressive behaviors
Effect of childhood media consumption
Longitudinal study found that boys with high preference for violent TV at age 8 were more likely
to engage in criminal behavior
by age 30
Regardless of how aggressive the
boys actually were when they were 8
Acts of violence imitated from media portrayals
Experimental studies show that aggressive acts are more likely to be imitated when people identify with the operator of the violent act
social learning theory
"Bobo" doll study
½ kids watched adult beat up doll
½ kids not exposed to the behavior
Kids allowed to play with doll
examined correlation between amount of time playing violent video games and aggressive delinquent behavior
r = .46!! (quite high)
Playing violent video games resulted in
Increased aggressive thoughts
Same effects for males and females, children and adults
short-term effects of video games
Primes aggressive cognitions
long-term effects of video games
Teaches people how to aggress
People develop aggressive schemas
They become desensitized to violence
presence of weapon
The presence of a weapon may increase aggression through priming effects
-In a study on aggression, participants were more likely to deliver more electrical shocks to a confederate when a weapon was present in the room
More shocks with a gun present in the room than with a badminton racket in the room
gener differences in aggression
Large gender differences in violent crime rates
Males much more likely to be involved in violent and criminal behavior
Male also more likely to be the victims of violence
Possibly due to differences in hormone levels, social learning, or evolved tendencies
-depends if direct or indirect aggression though
-The very first social psychology experiment
-Triplett (1898) observed that cyclists recorded faster times when competing against others than when racing alone
-Designed an experiment to test whether the presence of others facilitates human performance
-Assigned groups of children to reel in fishing lines alone and beside another child and found faster times when the child was co-acting with another person.
Concludes that the presence of others facilitates performance
Coined the term "Social Facilitation."
-However, subsequent studies showed that often the presence of others can impair performance????
The presence of others increases arousal, and arousal increases an individual's dominant responses
A dominant response is the response that one is most likely to make
For an easy or well-practiced task, the dominant response is often correct
For a difficult or novel task, the dominant response is ofThus, the presence of others can facilitate performance of easy tasks, but may impair performance of difficult tasks
tests of the theory
Examined the effects of social facilitation using cockroaches running mazes in the presence or absence of other roaches
In the presence of spectator roaches, the test roaches ran faster through a simple maze but slower through a complex maze
-on easy task had a better performance (faster) with an audience, but on hard task was better with no audience
presence of others arouses us
on simple, well-learned tasks it leads to the more dominant response which is correct, but on difficult tasks the dominant response is incorrect
arousal may come from fear about being evaluated by others
Study found participants made more dominant responses in front of an audience that could evaluate their performance than when in front of an audience that could not see them or when they performed alone
The mere presence of others may increase arousal because attention becomes divided between the task and the audience
Study examined how fast people changed their shoes when they were alone (unaware of being observed) compared to when other people were present.
Even though participants had no sense of being evaluated while changing their shoes, they did so faster in the presence of another person even if that person wasn't watching them
Evaluation Apprehension and Social Facilitation:
Average number of dominant responses made by participants who were responding alone, next to a blindfolded audience (who therefore couldn't monitor or evaluate their performance), or next to an attentive audience (who could evaluate their performance)
-only evaluation audience affects the dominant response rate, but blindfolded audience was comparable to task performed alone
Tendency to exert less effort when working on a group task, especially when individual contributions can't be measured
For instance, in a game of tug-of-war, the more people pulling means that each person will pull with less force than if they were pulling alone
avoiding social loafing
Social loafing can be avoided by making individual contributions identifiable and by emphasizing that each person's unique contribution is crucial for overall success
(Free riding Experiemnts, Diffusion of Responsibility)When working in groups
Divide up the work, so contributions are unique and identifiable
Emphasize the importance of the work or of the group itself
performance and matrix task
Overall, these results suggest that communication between dyad members increases the level of cheating, especially when this communication allows members to become familiar with one another and share their common interests (as in our friendly-talking condition, where cheating was the highest). In addition, these findings favor the local social utility prediction over the diffusion of responsibility prediction. As our results show, dishonesty increases when group members become more important to one another as a result of having the chance to talk and learn more about each other. This contradicts the prediction of diffusion of responsibility, whereby the level of cheating will decrease when communication is allowed and anonymity is decreased. Thus, these findings suggest that local social utility may be the dominant source of influence for individuals' unethical behavior within dyads and small groups.
Decrease in self-awareness resulting in decreased self-regulation and greater conformity to the group norms
Deindividuation results from feelings of anonymity, lack of accountability, and the energizing effects of being lost in a crowd
De-individuation often results in more impulsive, emotional, irrational, and antisocial behaviors
Historic examples of de-individuationinclude lynch mobs, riots, and military atrocities
When crowds of people begin encouraging someone threatening to commit suicide to commit suicideSuicide baiting was twice as likely to occur with a large crowd present
Suicide baiting is four times as likely to occur at night
Warriors that hide identity before going to battle (for example, with masks, or face paint) are more likely to kill, torture, and mutilate captive prisoners
experimenters place bowls of candy
Children arrived alone or in groups and were told to take one piece of candy.
After the adult left, 57 percent of children in groups stole extra candy but only 21 percent of children who were alone did so
Greater anonymity lead to greater antisocial behavior
If the adult asked for the children's names, only 21 percent of children in groups stole extra candy, and only 8 percent of the children who were alone did so
When people focus attention on themselves (individuation), they become concerned with self-evaluation and behave in ways more consistent with their values and beliefs
For instance, in a study that had timed how fast participants could solve a problem, many participants cheated a bit by taking extra time.
However, with a mirror in the room less than 10 percent cheated
We often believe that other people are paying more attention to us than they really are
Many self-destructive behaviors may be attempts to escape self-awareness
For instance, drinking alcohol decreases self-awareness.
We are even less likely to use pronouns like "I" or "me" when we are drunk
Groups that are highly cohesive can produce poor group decisions because maintaining group harmony may be emphasized over making an accurate judgment
Historic examples of groupthink
Lack of precaution at Pearl Harbor despite warnings of an imminent attack
George W. Bush administration's invasion of Iraq to find weapons of mass destruction, despite evidence suggesting no weapons were present
Decision to launch the Space Shuttle Challenger despite warnings of engineers
The Israeli IDF spent 18 years in Lebanon
sources of groupthink
Highly cohesive group
Insulated from outside opinions
No procedures for evaluating alternative
External stress or threat
symptoms of groupthink
Illusion of unanimity
Belief in inherent morality of group
Pressure on dissenters
Do not consider alternatives
Unrealistic optimism/ underappreciate risks
No backup plan
Group leader should refrain from making opinion known at first; group leader discusses important decisions with each member individually. Assign a "devil's advocate"
Bring in outside opinions
Develop an alternate plan
Group decisions tend to be more extreme than decisions rendered by individuals
Why do groups make more extreme decisions?
Exposure to additional arguments in favor of one's preexisting opinion strengthens opinion, confidence
If others express similar opinions, we may take a more extreme position to differentiate ourselves
Why do groups make more extreme decisions?
The dominant opinion is strengthened in Groups.
In many group decision-making scenarios, group decisions tend to be riskier
the sense that your challenges and demands surpass your current capacities, resources, and energies.
the tendency to think about some stressful event over and over again.
the ability to focus on one's feelings from the perspective of a detached observer.
a discipline that uses insights from psychology to create realistic and accurate models of economic behaviour.
the tendency for a loss of a given magnitude to have more psychological impact than an equivalent gain.
the reluctance to pursue an uncertain option with an average payoff that equals or exceeds the payoff attainable by another, certain option.
the opposite of risk aversion; the tendency to forgo a certain outcome in favour of a risky option with an equal or more negative average payoff.
sunk cost effect
a reluctance to "waste" money that leads people to continue with an endeavor, whether it serves their future interests or not, because they've already invested money, effort, or time in it.
the tendency to treat money differently depending on how it was acquired and to what mental category it is attached.
Incrementalist Theory of Intelligence
the belief that intelligence is something you get by dint of working.
Entity Theory of Intelligence
the belief that intelligence is something you're born with and can't change.
media presentations that are meant to both entertain and persuade people to act in their own (or in society's) best interests.
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