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The statement "there is always a synapse in a peripheral ganglion between the CNS and the effector organ" is
true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following?
Ganglionic neurons usually synapse with preganglionic neurons in the ________ and have axons that innervate ________.
autonomic ganglia, visceral effectors.
Activation of the parasympathetic division of the ANS results in:
increased motility and blood flow in the digestive tract.
Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called sympathetic ________ ganglia.
are bundles of postganglionic fibers that innervate organs within the thoracic cavity.
What type of neuron of the parasympathetic division exits the brain stem?
consist of axons that synapse in collateral ganglia.
Which is correct regarding neurotransmitter release in the sympathetic division?
Norepinephrine and epinephrine interact with adrenergic receptors in the plasma membrane.
The statement "its postganglionic axons always use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter" is
true only for the parasympathetic nervous system.
are normally activated by acetylcholine.
The statement "Preganglionic axon terminals release acetylcholine." is
true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
Which of the following is an effect of parasympathetic activation?
constriction of the pupils
Which of the following is an effect of sympathetic activation?
stimulation of the medial and lateral pathways associated with a general elevation in muscle tone
Regarding the dual autonomic innervation of the heart:
parasympathetic effects predominate at rest.
Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving
both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation.
In general, autonomic tone of peripheral blood vessels increases when
sympathetic stimulation is increased.
The parasympathetic nervous system is especially active during which physiological state(s)?
During sympathetic activation, ________ occurs.
elevated heart rate
elevated blood pressure
elevated blood glucose
A sudden decline in blood pressure in the carotid artery is a stimulus for which visceral reflex?
Which of the following is a characteristic of chemoreceptors of the aortic bodies?
They are sensitive to changes in the pH, PCO2 , and PO2 in arterial blood.
Regarding ANS motor control, which CNS structure(s) is/are involved in emotions, memory, and behavior?
Nuclei in which structure(s) control basic visceral reflex patterns?
spinal cord and brain stem
Sensory information is processed and relayed to the cerebrum by the
Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the
Which of the following is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
provides ATP for impulse transmission
Which of the following help to protect the brain?
the blood-brain barrier
the bones of the skull
the cranial meninges
The control of heart rate and blood pressure is based in the
The respiratory rhythmicity center is located in
the medulla oblongata.
The cerebellum adjusts motor activity in response to all of the following, except
The superior colliculi:
receive visual inputs from the thalamus and control the reflex movements of the eyes, head, and neck in response to these visual stimuli.
Stimulation of the reticular formation results in
The ________ filters and relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex.
Which of the following is not a property of the limbic system?
functions in maintaining homeostasis in cold weather
Which of the following is not a component of the limbic system?
Excitation of neurons in the basal nuclei would lead to
increased muscle tone.
The basal nuclei
provide the background patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities.
The primary motor cortex is the surface of the
The surface of the postcentral gyrus contains the ________ cortex.
The visual cortex is located in the
Cortical regions that interpret sensory information or coordinate motor responses are called ________ areas.
The corpus callosum is composed of
Which brain waves occur in the brains of healthy, awake adults who are resting with their eyes closed?
Peripheral adaptation ________ the number of action potentials that reach the CNS
The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the
The pyramidal system provides
voluntary control over skeletal muscles
Alzheimer disease is characterized by all of the following, except the one.
It has a clear genetic basis.
The cranial nerves that innervate the eye muscles are
III, IV, and VI.
The olfactory receptors are highly modified
Which characteristic is true of the olfactory pathway to the cerebrum?
The first synapse occurs in the olfactory bulb.
Which of the following is not one of the six primary taste sensations?
The sense of taste is also known as ________.
The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the
Which of these anatomical sequences is correct?
tympanum - malleus - incus - stapes - oval window - round window
What occurs when the head is in the normal, upright position?
The statoconia push the hair cell processes down.
The following is a list of the steps that occur in the production of an auditory sensation.
1. The pressure wave distorts the basilar membrane on its way to the round window.
2. Movement of the tympanic membrane causes displacement of the malleus.
3. Displacement of the stereocilia stimulates sensory neurons of the cochlear nerve.
4. Movement of the malleus causes movement of the incus and stapes.
5. Distortion of the basilar membrane forces the hair cells of the organ of Corti toward or away from the tectorial membrane.
6. Movement of the oval window establishes pressure waves in the perilymph of the vestibular duct.
2, 4, 6, 1, 5, 3.
or pinkeye, results from damage to or irritation of the conjunctival surface.
The vitreous body
helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina.
The part of the eye that determines eye color is the
The space between the iris and ciliary body and the lens is the
An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the
What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision?
are photoreceptor cells that are most useful in dim light.
There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. These cones are designated
red, green, and blue.
Which of the following is true about rhodopsin?
called visual purple
bleached during photoreception
is the visual pigment in rods
consists of opsin + retinal
The abnormality that develops when a lens loses its transparency is known as a
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