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What is the primary function of the organ skin?

regulate temperature, conserve water, rid waste, produce vitamin d

What other 4 functions can the organ Skin provide?

epidermis, dermis

What two basic layers compose the skin?

stratified squamous

The epidermis of the skin is made of what particular kind of epithelial cells?

resisting abrasion, drying out

The epidermis layer allows protection by ___ ___ as well as provides protection from ___ __.

dermis, bulk

Underneath the epidermis is the ___; which makes up the ___ of the skin.

fibrous connective

The dermis is a tough, leathery layer composed mosty of ____ ___ tissue.


Only the ______ is vascularized.


Nutrients reach the epidermis by ____ through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis.


The subcutaneous tissue just deep to the skin is known as the __-.


The hypodermis consists mostly of ____ tissue.

fat, anchors

Besides storing ___, the hypodermis ____ the skin to underlying structures such as muscles.

structural strength

The dermis layer provides the ___ ___ that makes it possible for the skin around the elbow to bend.


EPIDERMIS: Deepest epidermal layer; one row of actively MITOTIC stem cells.


The stratum basale of the epidermis will have what shape?


EPIDERMIS: Several layers of keratinocytes unified by desmosomes. Cells contain thick bundles of filaments made of pre-keratin. Begin of lamellar body.


The stratum spinosum AKA the ____ layer is very tightly packed.


Which layer of the epidermis stains the darkest?

lamellar body

____ ____ are formed in the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum. When the keratinocyte matures to the stratum corneum, enzymes degrade the outer envelope of these, releasing types of lipids called free fatty acids and ceramides.


Which layer of the epidermis does the water resistant/ repealant quality first appear?


Which layer of the epidermis does apoptosis first begin?


EPIDERMIS: Three to five layers of flattened cells; organelles deteriorating; cytoplasm full of lamellated granules and keratohyaline granules.


The stratum granulosum is named so because of it's ___ appearance caused by an abundance in kerathyaline granules.


Above the stratum ___, the epidermal cells are too far from the dermal capillaries and are cut off from nutrients by the glycolipids that coat their external surfaces, so THEY DIE.


EPIDERMIS: Lies just superficial to granulosum and is only present in thick skin.


What is the thickest layer of the epidermis?


Most superficial layer, all dead cells represented by flat membranous sacs filled with keratin.


Which stratum of the epidermis provides the most protection from drying out, as it is not in an interior, moist environment?

spinosum, corneum

What is D? What is A?

granulosum, basale

What is C? What is E?

lucidum, epidermis

What is B? What is this picture of?

corneum, granulosum

What is A? B?

lucidum, spinosum

What is C? D?


What is E?


The major portions of hair follicles, as well as oil and sweat glands, are derived from epidermal tissue but reside in the ___.


The most superficial layer to the dermis is the ___ layer.


The papillary layer of the dermis is made of ___ connective tissue.


In the papillary layer of dermis, there are ___ that protrude into the epidermis above. This is how the epidermis diffuses nutrients.

friction ridges

___ ___ are made up collectively of the dermal and epidermal ridges, and allow gripping ability of fingers and toes.


What composes most of the mass of the dermis layer ?

dense irregular

What type of connective tissue composes that of the reticular layer of the dermis?


The irregular connective tissue allows ___ fibers to stretch every which way.

cutaneous receptors, glands, hair follicles

What three things reside with in the dermis?

papillary, reticular

What is A? What is B?


Fibrous protein found in the epidermis, hair, and nails that makes those structures hard and water resistant; precursor is kerstohyaline.

sudoriferous gland

Epidermal gland that produces sweat.

sebaceous gland

Epidermal glands that produce and oily secretion called sebum.

arrector pili

Tiny, smooth muscles attached to hair follicles; contraction causes the hair to stand up.

arrector pili

What is A?

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