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49 terms

A and P Lab exercise 6

STUDY
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protection
What is the primary function of the organ skin?
regulate temperature, conserve water, rid waste, produce vitamin d
What other 4 functions can the organ Skin provide?
epidermis, dermis
What two basic layers compose the skin?
stratified squamous
The epidermis of the skin is made of what particular kind of epithelial cells?
resisting abrasion, drying out
The epidermis layer allows protection by ___ ___ as well as provides protection from ___ __.
dermis, bulk
Underneath the epidermis is the ___; which makes up the ___ of the skin.
fibrous connective
The dermis is a tough, leathery layer composed mosty of ____ ___ tissue.
dermis
Only the ______ is vascularized.
diffusing
Nutrients reach the epidermis by ____ through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis.
hypodermis
The subcutaneous tissue just deep to the skin is known as the __-.
adipose
The hypodermis consists mostly of ____ tissue.
fat, anchors
Besides storing ___, the hypodermis ____ the skin to underlying structures such as muscles.
structural strength
The dermis layer provides the ___ ___ that makes it possible for the skin around the elbow to bend.
basale
EPIDERMIS: Deepest epidermal layer; one row of actively MITOTIC stem cells.
cuboidal
The stratum basale of the epidermis will have what shape?
spinosum
EPIDERMIS: Several layers of keratinocytes unified by desmosomes. Cells contain thick bundles of filaments made of pre-keratin. Begin of lamellar body.
prickly
The stratum spinosum AKA the ____ layer is very tightly packed.
granulosum
Which layer of the epidermis stains the darkest?
lamellar body
____ ____ are formed in the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum. When the keratinocyte matures to the stratum corneum, enzymes degrade the outer envelope of these, releasing types of lipids called free fatty acids and ceramides.
granulosum
Which layer of the epidermis does the water resistant/ repealant quality first appear?
granulosum
Which layer of the epidermis does apoptosis first begin?
granulosum
EPIDERMIS: Three to five layers of flattened cells; organelles deteriorating; cytoplasm full of lamellated granules and keratohyaline granules.
grainy
The stratum granulosum is named so because of it's ___ appearance caused by an abundance in kerathyaline granules.
granulosum
Above the stratum ___, the epidermal cells are too far from the dermal capillaries and are cut off from nutrients by the glycolipids that coat their external surfaces, so THEY DIE.
lucidum
EPIDERMIS: Lies just superficial to granulosum and is only present in thick skin.
corneum
What is the thickest layer of the epidermis?
corneum
Most superficial layer, all dead cells represented by flat membranous sacs filled with keratin.
corneum
Which stratum of the epidermis provides the most protection from drying out, as it is not in an interior, moist environment?
spinosum, corneum
What is D? What is A?
granulosum, basale
What is C? What is E?
lucidum, epidermis
What is B? What is this picture of?
corneum, granulosum
What is A? B?
lucidum, spinosum
What is C? D?
basale
What is E?
dermis
The major portions of hair follicles, as well as oil and sweat glands, are derived from epidermal tissue but reside in the ___.
papillary
The most superficial layer to the dermis is the ___ layer.
areolar
The papillary layer of the dermis is made of ___ connective tissue.
papillae
In the papillary layer of dermis, there are ___ that protrude into the epidermis above. This is how the epidermis diffuses nutrients.
friction ridges
___ ___ are made up collectively of the dermal and epidermal ridges, and allow gripping ability of fingers and toes.
reticular
What composes most of the mass of the dermis layer ?
dense irregular
What type of connective tissue composes that of the reticular layer of the dermis?
collagen
The irregular connective tissue allows ___ fibers to stretch every which way.
cutaneous receptors, glands, hair follicles
What three things reside with in the dermis?
papillary, reticular
What is A? What is B?
keratin
Fibrous protein found in the epidermis, hair, and nails that makes those structures hard and water resistant; precursor is kerstohyaline.
sudoriferous gland
Epidermal gland that produces sweat.
sebaceous gland
Epidermal glands that produce and oily secretion called sebum.
arrector pili
Tiny, smooth muscles attached to hair follicles; contraction causes the hair to stand up.
arrector pili
What is A?