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50 terms

Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels

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This Layer (or tunic) of the Blood Vessel wall is Composed of Smooth Muscle and Elastin:
The Tunica Media contains Smooth Muscle and Elastin
Exchange of Materials (like oxygen) btw the Blood and Tissue Cells takes place in:
True Capillaries
In which Vessel is the Lowest Blood Pressure?
The Venules
When Precapillary Sphincters Dilate...
Blood Flow Through the True Capillaries Increases
What special adaptation in veins prevents the backflow of blood as it travels toward the heart?
Venous one-way valves prevent backflow
Which type of blood vessel consists of only a thin tunica intima?
The Capillaries
Which has more smooth muscle, but less elastin, and delivers blood to specific organs?
Muscular arteries
Which vessels have the largest lumen and a thin tunica media?
Veins
The innermost layer (or tunic) of the blood vessel wall is called the:
Tunica Intima
Which Artery provides the greatest resistance to flow?
Arterioles Provide the Greatest Resistance to Flow
Systolic pressure (SP) is:
The maximum pressure reached in the arteries
The dicrotic notch represents the brief interruption of smooth blood flow caused by the backflow of blood that closes which valve?
The Aortic semilunar
Diastolic pressure is usually:
80 mm Hg
Pulse Pressure is:
The difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure
The calculated "average" pressure in the arteries is called the:
Mean Arterial Pressure
No Sounds are Heard
When the pressure in the blood pressure cuff is greater than in the artery
The first sound you hear through the stethoscope as pressure in the cuff is released is recorded as:
Systolic Pressure
DP + PP/3
The correct formula for calculating mean arterial pressure (MAP)
Calculate pulse pressure, given SP = 110 mm Hg and DP = 70 mm Hg
40 mm Hg
Calculate MAP, given SP = 130 mm Hg and DP = 70 mm Hg
90 mm Hg
Applying norepinephrine to a blood vessel would alter which of the three sources of peripheral resistance?
Vessel diameter
Increasing hematocrit would alter which of the three sources of peripheral resistance?
Viscosity
An increase in fatty tissue affects which of the three sources of peripheral resistance?
Vessel length
Arteriosclerosis will alter which of the following factors, thus increasing blood pressure?
Vessel diameter
If there is a decrease in blood volume, what would be the effect on blood pressure (BP)?
BP would decrease
Sympathetic stimulation to the heart would alter heart rate, thus __________ cardiac output:
increasing
How would stimulation of the vagus nerve alter cardiac output (CO)?
Decrease in CO caused by decreased heart rate
How would increasing stroke volume (SV) alter cardiac output (CO) and blood pressure (BP)?
Increased CO and increased BP
Administering angiotensin II to your patient would __________ the patient's blood pressure.
increase
The long-term mechanism for regulation of blood pressure involves regulating which of the following?
Blood volume
The aortic arch and the carotid sinus contain nerve endings that monitor blood pressure by the degree of stretch on the vessel wall. These sensors are called:
Arterial Baroreceptors
A change in blood pressure that increases the impulses to the cardiovascular center results in increased impulses from which branch of the autonomic nervous system?
The Parasympathetic
Impusles from the Parasympathetic:
Decreases Blood Pressure
A change in blood pressure that decreases the impulses to the cardiovascular center results in increased impulses from which branch of the autonomic nervous system?
The Sympathetic
Increased Impulses from the Sympathetic:
Increases Blood Pressure
Increased Activity to the Vagus Nerve would cause the heart rate to:
Decrease
Increased sympathetic nerve activity at the heart would cause:
An increase in both heart rate and contractility
The sympathetic nervous system also stimulates the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from what gland?
The Adrenal Gland
What cells in the kidney monitor blood pressure, releasing renin when blood pressure is low?
The Juxtaglomerular cells
How does angiotensin II raise blood pressure?
Directly by increasing vasoconstriction and indirectly by stimulating aldosterone release
An increase in plasma osmolarity stimulates release of what hormone from the posterior pituitary?
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
What regulates the flow of blood into true capillaries?
Precapillary sphincters
Low O2 and high CO2
This combination would increase blood flow in capillaries
Decreased nutrients and fever:
This combination would increase blood flow in capillaries
Oxygen and carbon dioxide move through the blood vessel wall primarily by:
Diffusion
Amino acids, move through the blood vessel walls by which of the following mechanisms?
Clefts or fenestrations
Bulk fluid flow causes ____________ at the arterial end and ______________ at the venous end of the capillary.
Filtration; Reabsorption
Blood pressure forces fluid _____ the capillary.
out of
Plasma proteins in the capillary forces fluid _____ the capillary.
into
When Hydrostatic pressure is higher than net Osmotic pressure what happens?
Fluid will leave the Capillary