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Five types of Skin glands

-Merocrine Sweat(sudoriferous) glands
-Apocrine Sweat(sudoriferous) glands
-Sebaceous glands
-Ceruminous glands
-Mammary glands

Mecrocrine(eccrine) sweat glands

Most numerous sweat glands(3-4 million in adult)
-simple tubular glands w/ watery perspiration to cool body
-myoepithelial cells:Contract in response to stimulation by sympathetic nervous sys. & squeeze perspiration up to duct

Apocrine Sweat glands

In groin,anal region,axilla,areola, bearded area of males/devel. in puberty
-ducts lead to nearby hair follicles & produce sweat that is milky and contain fatty acids
-Scent glands that respond to stress/sexual stimulation
-Pheromones:Chemicals that influence the physiology of behavior of other species mem.
-Bromhidrosis: Disagreeable body odor prod. by bacterial action on fatty acids


Begins as protein free filtrate of blood plasma prod. by deep secretory portion of gland
-Potassium ions,urea,lactic acid, ammonia and some sodium chloride remain in sweat, most sodium chloride reabsorbed by duct
-Insensible perspiration: doesn't prod. visible wetness skin
-Diaphoresis-Sweating w/ wetness of skin

Sebaceous Glands

-Sebum-Oily secretion prod. by seb. glands
-Flask-shaped glands w/ short ducts opening into hair follicle
-Holocrine gland- Secretion consists of broken down cells
-replaced by mitosis at base gland
-Keeps skin and hair from becoming dry,brittle and cracked
-Lanolin-Sheep sebum

Ceruminous Glands

Only in external ear canal;Secretion combines w/ sebum & dead epithelial cells to form earwax(cerumen)
-Keeps eardrum flexible;waterproofs the canal;Kill bacteria & makes guard hairs of ear sticky to block foreign particles

Mammary Glands

Breasts(mammae) of both sexes contain very little grandular material
-milk prod. glands that dev. only during pregnancy/lactation
-modified apocrine sweat glands/richer secretion released thru nipples
-Mammary ridges/lines:two rows of mammary glands in most animals,primates kept only anterior most glands
-Additional nipples(polythelia)may devel. along milk line

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