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Psychology Exam #1
Terms in this set (171)
What is psychology
Psychology is the systematic study of behavior and experience
What is determenism and why is it important?
Determenism is the idea that everything has a cause, or a determinant, that one could observe or measure and it is important because scientists.... including psychologists believe in this idea
What Do Psychologists Do
Psychology is a discipline that in fact includes many branches and specialties (degrees)
List the different specializations psychologists can become
Types of Therapists (Providers to individuals)
-Clinical Social Worker
Types of service providers to Organizations
-Human Factor Specialists (Ergonomists)
Types of Psychologists in teaching and research (academia)
-Learning and motivation psychologists
What do clinical psychologists do?
Help people with mental and emotional problems
What do counseling psychologists do?
They help people with educational, vocational, marriage, health, and other important life decisions. They are NOT good with sever mental illness
What do psychoanalysts do?
Psychologogists associated with Sigmund Freudand deal with dream interpretation and hidden meanings
What do psychiatrists do?
Psychiatrists are trained as medical doctors
In addition to training in psychology, they are educated in how to use prescription drugs to treat psychological distress
What do clinical social workers do?
Clinical social workers are similar to clinical psychologists but with a different training. They have a masters degree in social work with a specialization in psychological problems
What do industrail organizationl psychologist do?
Deal with issues such as hiring the right people, training, salaries and bonuses, etc.
What do ergonomists do?
Work with machinary to make it so ordinary people can use it safetly and efficiently
What do cognitive psychologists do?
Study the process of thought and knowledge
What do learning and motivation psychologists do?
Study how our behavoir and motivation depends on past outcomes
What do developmental psychologists do?
Study how our behavoir changes with age
-What do Biopsychologists or (neuroscientists) study?
they explain behavoir in terms of biological factors,
ex: chemical activities in the brain, the effects of hormones, etc.
What do social psychologists study?
Social psychologists study how an an individual influences a group and how a group influences an individual
What do cross-cultural psychologists study?
They compare behavoir of people from different cultures
What is the difference between a PhD and a PsyD
PhD (doctor of philosophy)
typically emphasize MORE research training integrated with applied or practice training
PsyD (doctor of psychology)
programs place strong emphasis on preparing their graduates for professional practice as practitioner-scholars, but typically with less research training.
Who is William Wundt and what did he do?
He is known as the father of psychology becuaese he established the first psychology laboratory
Who is Edward Titchener and what did he do?
He developed the approach he called structuralism
What is structuralism?
Structuralism involves The study of the elements of consciousness a.k.a. studing/describing the structures that compse the mind
Who is Edward James and what did he do?
Instead of focusing on the elements of consciousness (Structuralism), Edward James studied how people produce certain behaviors (Functionalism)
ex: how do people ...
-Edward James founded functionalism
What is functionalism?
Learning how people produce useful behavoir
What are some typical questions from a functionalists perspective?
Q: How does a person recall the answer to a question?
Q: How does a person inhibit an undesirable impulse?
Who is Darwin? and what did he do?
-Darwin came up with the idea of evolution and natural selection
-He beleived that species had specializtion and this helped some species to survive
What is a partive psychologist
a specialist who compares different animal species
Who is Francis Galton and what did he do?
-Galton investigated how heredity influenced variations in cognitive abilities
-Galton studied the sons of lawyers, doctors, politicins, physicins, etc.
Who created the first useful IQ test?
-Alfred Binet devised the first useful intelligence test
Who is John B. Watson and what did he do?
-John B. Watson studied the behavoir of rats in a maze
-While structuralism was eventually abandoned, behaviorism is a field of psychology that concentrates on measurable behavior and not mental processes
What is behavoirism?
Behaborism is a field of psychology tht concentrates on observable, measurable behavoirs and NOT on mental processes
Who is Erik Erikson and What did he do?
Erik Erikson Divided the human life span into eight stages
Toddler (1-3 years)
Preschool Child (3-6 years)
Preadolescent (6-12 years)
Adolescent (early teens)
Young Adult (late teens and early 20s)
Middle Adult (late 20s to retirement)
Older Adult (after retirement)
Click Question: This psychologist helps individuals in making important life decisions and typically does not deal with patients suffering from severe mental illness
A major difference between a PhD and a PsyD is that a PhD deals with ______ research and a PsyD deals with _______ research
Who is Edward Thorndike and what did he do?
Edward Thorndike came up with the law of effect
The Law of Effect= A response followed by favorable consequences becomes more probable and a response by unfavorable consequences becomes less probable
Who is B.F Skinner and what did he do?
Rat would press a lever or a pigeon pecks at an illuminated key to receive a reward
Establishing a new response by reinforcing successive approximations to it
What is operant conditioning?
One of the fundamental parts of behavorism psychology, which shows how rewards or consequences influence behavoir
What does an operant conditioning chamber look like?
Rat, lever, gets a pellet
Who is Sigmund Frued and What did he do?
-Psychoanalytic theory, and
proposed the existence of an "unconscious mind" with the Id, Ego, Superego
-Stages of Psychosexual Development
Oral-(birth to 1½ years)
Anal-(1½ to 3 years)
Phallic-(3 to 5/6 years)
Latent-(5/6 to puberty)
Who is Carl Jung and what did he do?
His ideas extended beyond the conscious and unconscious mind to include a collective unconscious
What is the collective uncioncios?
Everyone has their own Personal Unconscious. The Collective Unconscious in contrast is universal, or unconscious spread throughout society.
The collective uncioncious containes archetypes (vague images/ideas) that have always been part of the human experience
Who is Alred Adler and what did he do?
Alfred Adlerds most famous concept is the idea of inferiority complex, which talks about of self-esteem and its negative effects on human health. Basically, Alfred Adler said Personality depended on people's goals
Who is Carl Rogers and what did he do?
-Carl Rogers is the father of client-centered therapy
-He Recommended that people relate to each other with Unconditional Positive Regard (or that people should be accepting NO MATTER what they say or do)
Who is Franz Joseph Gall and what did he do?
Franz Joseph Gall=Phrenology
personality traits of a person can be derived from the shape (or bumps) of the skull
He also was a pioneer in saying localized or different parts of the brain had differnt functions
Steven Maier & Martin Seligman what did they do?
they came up with the idea of Learned Helplessness. One rat learned he could escape and the other rat just sat there and took the shock even when he finally could escape
Who is Alberta Bandura and what did she do?
Imitation for learning aggressive behavior
-Bobo Doll study (if adult hit doll, child would immitate)
Explain Maslows hierarchy of needs
Pysiological needs (food,water, air)
Safety Security needs
Belonging and Love needs
Esteem needs (Fame, prestige, etc.)
Q: A response followed by a favorable consequence becomes more probable and a response followed by a less favorable consequence becomes more probable is known as?
The Law of effect
Q: Which individual developed the idea of inferiority complex?
A: Alfred Adler
Q: Who developed the idea of collective unconscious?
Chapter 2: What do Research Methods Include?
Why do we need Research methods?
It helps us evaluate discrete claims (called hypotheses)
What is a hypothesis? and give an examaple...
A hypothesis is a clear estble tpredictive statement
Ex: There is a relationship between televised violence and aggressive behavior. i.e. watching violence leads to violence
a good hypothesis ______
leads to predictions
What is a theory?
A theory is a comprehensive explanation of observable events and conditions.
What are methods?
The different ways you test your hypothesis
A good theory is _________
After you get your results you need to
The researcher has to INterpret if the results are valid and whether the results Support -or-Contradict the hypothesis statement
Draw a scientfic method diagram
What are replicable results?
Results that anyone can obtain at least approximately by following the same procedures
When given a choice among explanations that seem to fit a situation, we prefer the assumption that is simpler and more consistent with other well established ideas. This is known as???
Who is Wilhelm von Osten and what is his significance?
The guy who claimed his hourse could do arithmatic. This relates to parsimony b/c his hourse doing arithmatic is NOT the simpilest answer
What is a perpetual motion mchine?
A machine that generates more energy than it uses
What is n operational definition?
An operational definition helps to explain questions such as "what do we relly mean by temperture?"
In order to measure concepts and phenomena accurately, we develop behavioral or observable definitions of them.
So if we are investigating the effect of watching violence on television on aggressive behavior:
We need to operationalize "violence" on television.
We need to operationalize "aggressive behavior."
What is a population?
A population is an entire group of individuals to be considered
What is a sample?
A selection from the population
List different kinds of population samples
A group chosen because of its ease to study is known as?
a convenience sample?
A group that closely represent the population is known as a?
What is a random sample?
When every individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected
What is a cross-cultural sample?
groups of people from at least two different cultures being studied
What is expiramental bias?
the researcher's unintentional distortion of the procedures or results of an experiment based on the expected or desired outcome.
What are some ways to eliminate expiramental bias?
What is a blind observer?
blind observers record data without knowing what the researcher is studying.
What is a single-blind study
either the observer or the participant is unaware of which participant recieved the treatment
What is a double-blind study?
both the observer and the participants are unaware of who recieves the treatment
A pill with no known pharmacological effects is known as?
What are demand characteristics?
Cues that tell participants what is expected of them and what the experimenter hopes to find.
There are many types of research designs. List the observational research design types
Name another type of research design?
What is naturalistic observation?
Careful monitoring and examination of what people and animals do under more or less natural circumstances.
What is a case study?
A thorough observation and description of an individual usually done in an unusual condition or circumstance
What is a survey?
A survey is a study of the prevalence of certain beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors, based on people's responses to specific questions.
What are some downsides of the survey?
-People do not always take surveys seriously
-Wording can change results with bad operational definitions
-People afraid to answer questions
What are correlational studies?
Correlation is a measure of the relationship between two variables over which the investigator has no control.
Explain the values correlations can have
The value of the correlation coefficient can range from +1.00 to -1.00.
What does a zero correlation mean?
A zero or near-zero correlation means that the variables have no relationship.
What does the posotive and negative in correlation mean?
The negative or positive sign DOES NOT indicate strength
Only the direction
What indicates strenght of a correlation?
How far close to 1 either posotive +++ or negative ---- the the number is
What is the problem with the interpretation in correlation?
Interpretation does not mean causation
In an expirament, what is the IV
the IV is the variable in which the investigator manipulates
In an expirament, what is the DV?
The DV is the variable the researcher measures to see how it is affected
Q: A researcher wants to know if a particular herbal supplement is helpful for improving memory. She selects 100 college sophomores who achieved an average score on a memory test. She gives half of them the herb for one month and half of them a placebo. Following the treatment exposure, the researcher gives another memory test. What is the IV and what is the DV?
IV = supplement (herb/placebo)
DV = score on memory test
What is the expiramental group?
The set of individuals who receive the treatment.
What is the control group?
The set of individuals experience the same conditions except for exposure to the treatment.
What are some Ethical Concerns different types of research designs can have for Humans in ex
It is unethical to perform procedures that would cause significant pain, embarrassment, or any other harm.
How can you eliminate ethical concerns
Institutional Review Board (IRB).
What are descriptive statistics?
Descriptive statistics are mathematical summaries of results. There are two broad categories of descriptive statistics:
What are the two broad categories of descriptive statistics:
1)Measurements of the central score
2)Measurements of variation
What are the different measuraments of central score?
The mean, the median, the mode
What are the different measuraments of variation
The standard deviation
What is the mean?
The mean (or average) is the sum of all the scores divided by the total number of scores
What is a normal distribution?
A normal distribution, or normal curve, is a symmetrical frequency of scores clustered around the mean.
What is a median?
he median is the middle score when we arrange all the scores in order from lowest to highest.
What is a mode?
The mode is most frequent score in a distribution
What does a standard deviation measure?
The standard deviation (SD) is a measurement of the amount of variation among scores in a distribution.
Q: On your first statistics exam of the semester, you get a score of 80, the mean for the class is 70, and the standard deviation is 5. On the second exam of the semester, you get a 90. The mean for the class is again 70, but the standard deviation is 20 this time. Compared to the other students in your class, did you do better, worse, or the same on the second test?
A You did better on the first test compared to the rest of the class because you scored 2 SD higher vs only 1
What are inferential statistics?
inferential statistics are statements about a large population based on an inference from small sample
The results are summarized by a p meaing probability
What does it mean when a P<.05
p<.05 less than .05 indicates that the probability that randomly generated results would resemble the observed results is less than 5% (pg. 56).
This means there is a high likelihood the results did not occur by chance and would be defined as statistically significant.
What does something being "statistically significant" mean?
it is unlikely for the results to have unrisen by chance
What would a 95% confidence interval mean?
the range within which the true true population mean lies, with 95% certainty
Chapter 3: How is the nervous system divided
The nervous system has two major divisions. The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
Very generally, what central nerous system
The central nervous system is the brain and the spinal cord
Very generally, what is the peripheral nervous system?
the peripheral nervous system consists of bundles of nerves between the spinal cord and the rest of the body
Explain more about the peripheral nervous system.
The peripheral nervous system is further divided into the somatic and the autonomic nervous system
What is the somatic nervous system?
The somatic nervous system connects the skin to the muscles &
Sends sensory information to the central nervous system AND motor nerve fibers that project to skeletal muscle.
What is the autonomic nervous system?
The autonomic (meaning automatic) connects the heart, stomach, and other organs. The autonomic nervous system has two parts:
1) the sympathetic system
What do the sympathetic nervous system
and the parasympathetic nervous system do and what are they part of?
The sympathetic nervous system Is the crisis management center.
It increases heart rate, breathing, respiration rate, etc. and prepares the body for fight or flight.
The parasympathetic nervous system decreases heart rate, INCREASES digestive activities, and promotes restorative processes.
Both these systems are part of the aotomatic nervous system, which is part of the peripheral nervous system
in the sympathetic nervous system... the stomach is _____ active
less active because the paraympatheric nervous system increases digestive activities not the sympathetic
Explain more about the central nervous system.
The central nervous system, or the brain and the spinal cord the brain has 3 divisions
Explain more bout the forebrain
The forebrain has a left and right hemisphere.
Each controls sensation and motor functioning on the opposite side of the body (contralateral).
What is the cerebral cortex?
The Outer portion/covering of the brain
How is the cerbral cortex divided?
The areas of the cerebral cortex are shown as four lobes:
Explain more about the occipital love
Located in the rear and specialized for vision.
interpret visual sensory information
-People with damage to their occipital lobe have cortical blindness!!!
Explain more about the temporal love
Located on the sides of the head, near the ears.
Main processing areas for speech/language comprehension, and hearing.
-Temperol love also important for face recognition
-People with damage to their temporal love can't recognize faces!!!!!
Explain more about the parietal lobe
Located directly in front of the occipital lobe.
Specialized for the body senses such as touch, pain, temperature.
The parietal lobe also has the Primary somatosensory cortex
, which is a strip in the anterior portion of the parietal love that has cells sensative to touch in other areas of the body
-Damage to the parietal lobe impairs sensation to touch in different body areas!!!!
What is the primary somatosensory coretex?
a strip in the anterior portion of the parietal love that has cells sensative to touch in other areas of the body
Explain more about the frontal lobe
In the front of the brain and the executive function of this section of the brain is Decision making
The frontal lobe also contains the primary motor cortex (importnt for controlling fine movements, such as moving one finger at a time)
The anterior of the frontal lobe contains the prefrontal cortex (important for planning and decision making)
-Many mirror neurons in the frontal lobe
What are mirror neurons?
Mirror neurons are activated when you make a movement AND when you watch someone else make a movement
What is the limbic system?
The limbic system consists of:
and the limbic system Broadly defined a network of structures involved in emotion and learning.
The Basal Ganglia are a group of nucli at the base of the forebrain consisting of caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus and the Basal Ganglia is important for motor control
What are the internal (subcortical Areas) of the brain
What is the Diencephalon
The Diencephalon is the region of the brain that contains the Thalamus
Relay center of the brain
and the Hypothalamus
Involved in thirst, hunger, body temperature, and blood pressure
What is the Cerrebellum?
The Cerrebellum is part of the hindbrain that is important for the coordination of voluntary motor movement and balance.
What is the Medulla oblongata
The medulla oblongata is part of the hindbrain that
-Controls involuntary reflexes
-Regulation of cardiovascular and respiratory activity (i.e., controls breathing and heart rate).
-It is the vital center of the brain
What is the Pons?
Connect the cerebellum to the rest of the brain
Modify the respiratory output of the medulla.
What is an Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Use electrodes on the scalp to record rapid changes in brain electrical activity.
Record magnetic activity in the brain.
Computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT)
Is an X-ray procedure, but the X-ray is rotated around the head of the patient from different angles.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Uses magnetic energy (compared to X-rays) to generate a detailed view of the brain.
Positron emission tomography (PET)
a high-resolution picture of brain activity using radioactive chemicals injected into the bloodstream.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
uses magnetic detectors to measure changes in blood flow in the brain
Which individual developed the idea of the inferiority complex?
Who developed the idea of the "collective unconscious"
What part of the scientific theory is also known as a prediction or claim?
A convenience sample is?
A group chosen because ofmits ease of availability
A falsifiable theory is?
One that makes, clear, easily testable predictions
When given a choice between explanations we prefer the simpiler explanation. This is known as?
Which type of population sample has every person in the sample having an equal chance of being selected?
A random sample
What is spinal cord important for?
Reflex and voluntary responses are conducted through the spinal cord.
What are the 5 types of spinal nerves?
1) Cervical Nerves
2) Thoracic Nerves
3) Lumbar Nerves
4) Sacral Nerves
5) Coccygeal (tailbone)
What is epilepsy?
Cells somewhere in the brain emit abnormal rhythmic, spontaneous impulses.
What are neurons
The basic unit of the nervous system are cells that receive and transmit information electrochemically. There are 3 types of Neurons:
Afferent (or sensory) neurons
Efferent (or motor) neurons
What is the glia?
It is non neuron cells that supports the neurons in many ways
(Astrocycle) (stimulates reaction between neurons)
What are the parts of the neurons?
-Cell body (or Soma) (which contains the nucleus)
-Dendrites (Branching structures that receive transmissions from other neurons)
-Axon Hillock (Nerve impulse is generated here)
-Axon (A single, long, thin fiber with branching tips
Carries nerve impulses from the cell body to other neurons)
-Myelin Sheath (Fatty insulation around an axon which
Speeds up conduction of nerve impulse)
-Nodes of Ranvier (Gaps between the myelin sheath segments)
-Axon Terminal (or terminal button)
Communicates with other cells
Explain the Action Potential
The all-or-none law
If you want to perform an action potential there is the all-or-none law. It is an all-or-nothing process - it's either happening or not
Speed of the action is sped up by:
Nodes of Ranvier
How does Action Potential Work?
-Resting potential the charge of the inside of the cell is negative (-70 millivolts).
Reach threshold (approx. -55 millivolts)
-Depolarization makes the charge inside the cell positive.
-Repolarization makes the charge inside the cell negative
What are synapses
Communication between neurons occurs at the synapses.
Explain how synaptic transmision works
Excitatory neurotransmitters (e.g., Glutamate) cause the next cell to "fire" - continue to carry the action potential.
Inhibitory neurotransmitters (e.g., Gamma-Amino-Butyric Acid, GABA) decrease the likelihood the action potential will continue to travel.
What is Parkinson's disease?
-A disorder altered by the availability of a neurotransmitter
-Parkinson's disease is the depletion of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Symptoms of Parkinsons:
-Individuals display tremors at rest, muscle rigidity, and reduction in voluntary movement
What is Schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia comes from increased amount of dopamine.
Decline in their effort for daily activities
What do drugs do?
They either enhance or decrease activities at the synapse BUT Nearly all abused and addictive drugs increase activity at the dopamine receptors in the brain.
Drug increases activity at a synapse
Drug decreases activity at a synapse
What do stimulants do?
They Increase energy, alertness, and activity
Give examples of stimulants.
Crack Cocaine fast-acting stimulant
Ritalin (Methylphenidate), slow-acting stimulant that increases attention.
Caffeine is a milder and less dangerous stimulant drug.
Tobacco products contain nicotine, which activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
What do depressants do? and
Decrease physiological arousal by enhancing the release of Gaba
What are examples of depressants
Anxiolotic Drugs (which help people relax)
such as valium, Xanax, and flunitrazepan "date rape drug"
What are narcotics?
Drugs that produce drowsiness and insensitivity to pain and the two types of narcotics are opiates and endorphins
Create a feeling of euphoria.
Can be used to reduce pain
What are endorphins
Chemicals in the brain that bind to opiate receptors and stimulate dopamine production.
What are the Pros and Cons of Marijuana?
Suppression of pain and nausea
Reduces pressure on eyes and cell loss after a stroke
Memory impairment and decreased motivation
Increases risk of lung cancer
What are Hallucinogens?
Hallucinogens Induce sensory distortions and false sensory experiences.
Give some examples of Halluciongens?
-Lysergic acid diethlyamide (LSD)
-Methlyenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or "ecstasy
-Phencyclidine (PCP) or "angel dust"
Inhibits glutamate receptors
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