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Weber State University Summer 2014
Terms in this set (92)
the retention of information or experience over time
the way in which information is processed for storage in memory
determines how information is represented in memory and how long it is retained
memory process that occurs when information that was retained in memory comes out of storage.
occurs when we attend only to certain things in the environment. We ignore other stimuli.
when we have to pay attention to several different things at the same time. Less successful at encoding than others who give it their full attention
Name 3 levels of processing
shallow level processing
processing occurs when we are paying attention to the physical attributes of a stimulus
intermediate level processing
processing that occurs when we recognize the stimulus and give it a name
deepest level processing
occurs when we think of the stimulus's meaning and make associations.
the depth that the processing is at any level. takes place when a person not only remembers the definition of a stimulus but also adds meaning to it. Helps to increase the amount of information that can be stored
helps to make memories distinctive. Entails visualizing material that we want to remember in ways that create a lasting portrait
studied a person with an amazing memory.
suggests a theory that memory is stored in both a verbal and an image code.
states that memory for words with pictures is better because the memory is stored in two ways.
states that there are three systems in memory storage.
What are the three systems in the Atkinson-Shiffrin Theory?
sensory memory, short-term memory, Long-term memory
holds information that is taken from environmental stimuli. memory is held for a fraction of a second to several seconds. We process more of this memory than we consciously notice.
auditory sensory memory, held for several seconds
visual memory that is held for about 1/4 of a second
conducted the first research on iconic memory. Study flashed 9 letters on a screen for 1/20 of a second. most could recall about 1/2 of them.
information is held for about 30 seconds to a min. Most people can hold 7, plus or minus two, bits of information.
the idea that people can hold 7, plus or minus 2, bits of information in short-term memory
What are two ways to improve short-term memory?
chunking and Rehearsal
grouping amounts of information larger than 7, into higher order single units as a way to improve short-term memory.
repeating information over and over again as a way to remember it. Information retained can be held indefinitely unless there is some sort of interruption. Does not involve deep processing.
a three part system that temporarily holds information while a person is working on a cognitive task. Has a limited capacity. It includes short-term memory and attention components.
proposed the working memory theory. A kind of mental workbench on which the brain manipulates and assembles information to help us understand, make decisions and solve problems. Deficits with working memory have been found in patients with Alzheimers disease.
What are the three parts to working memory?
Phonological loop, visuospatial working memory, central executive
stores speech-based information about the sounds of language. contains an acoustic code(the sounds we hear) and rehearsal (allows us to repeat the words in the phonological store)
stores visual and spatial information, including visual imagery. has a limited capacity.
integrates the information not only from the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad but also long term memory. plays an important role in planning, organizing and attention. Monitors the information that we should pay attention to and the information we should ignore.
a relatively permanent memory storage base. Virtually unlimited amounts of space in the human brain for storage. Divided into two substructures, implicit and explicit memory.
also known as declarative memory. A memory for specific facts or events and information that can be verbally communicated. Remembering who, what, where, when, why. Two subcategories: episodic and semantic memory.
Also known as non-declarative memory. memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without conscious memory of the experience. Includes systems involved in procedural memory, classical conditioning, and priming. Has to do with remembering how.
conducted studies on the retention of Spanish course material on alumni. Found that forgetting tended to occur in the first three years after taking the classes and then leveled off.
the retention of information about the where, what, and when of life's happenings.Autobiographical, pertains specifically to a given person's life,
a person's knowledge about the world. general knowledge, facts, ideas, and concepts.
a type of implicit memory process that involves memory for skills. Riding a bike, driving a car, typing.
the automatic learning of associations between stimuli, so that one stimulus comes to evoke the same response as another. Part of implicit memory
a type of implicit memory, it is the activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster. It is assumed to be involuntary and a non-conscious process.
What are two examples of memories that evoke priming?
when something in the environment evokes a response in memory
goal directed behavior
What are three ways memory is organized?
hierarchically, schema, connectionist networks
a preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information. memories from prior encounters with the environment influence the way individuals encode, make inferences about and retrieve information.
a schema for an event. Contains information about physical features, people, and typical occurrences.
parallel distributed processing (PDP) the theory that memory is stored through our the brain in connections among neurons, several of which may work together to process a single memory.
the locations of neural activity, interconnected
spent his lifetime looking for a location in the brain in which memories are stored. discovered that memories are not stored in one area of the brain but throughout various parts of the brain.
researcher that believes memories are clustered in groups of about 1, 000 neurons.
a concept to explain how memory functions at the neuron level. States that is two neurons are activated at the same time, the connection between them, and thus the memory, may be strengthened.
What did researchers discover when they studied memory in sea slugs?
when neurotransmitters are released they trigger memories.
What Brain structures are involved in explicit memory?
hippocampus, the temporal lobes in the cerebral cortex, and other areas of the limbic system.
the frontal lobes
involved in retrospective and prospective memory
Left: active in remembering new information
Right: more active in memory retrieval.
remembering things from the past
remembering things we need to do in the future. including memory for intentions. Includes both timing( when we have to do something) and content( what we need to do)
part of the limbic system. Evolved in emotional memories
What brain structures are involved in implicit memory?
the cerebellum- memory required to perform skills
cerebral cortex, temporal lobes, hippocampus- function in priming
Serial position effect
the tendency to recall the items at the beginning and end of a list more readily than those in the middle
better recall for items at the beginning of a list. These items are rehearsed more and they receive more elaborate processing than so words later in the list. stay in working memory longer.
better recall of items at the bottom of the list. When needed for recall might still be in working memory.
cues for what you are trying to remember. a good strategy is using subcategories, such as letters of the alphabet or math class (trying to remember a name)
remembering if something seems familiar is an easier task than remembering details, like name.
a memory task in which the individual has to retrieve previously learned information, such as on essay tests.
is a memory task in which the individual only has to identify learned items. such as a multiple choice test.
encoding specificity principle
state that information present at the time of encoding or learning tends to be effective as a retrieval cue. Such as knowing a teacher in class but not recognizing them at the gym.
context dependant memory
when someone attempts to recall information in the same context in which they learned it. they remember better.
a special form of episodic memory, consisting of a person's recollections of his or her life experiences. complex memories. contains three levels: life time periods, general events, event-specific knowledge. Contain some memory and some myth
Autobio. life time period level
long segments of time measured in years and even decades
EX: high school
Autobio. General events period level
extended composite episodes measured in days, weeks or months
EX: a trip,
Autobio. Event-specific knowledge period level
individual episodes measured in seconds, minutes, or hours
EX: the first time you jet skied.
the memory of emotional significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events. more likely to recall information about our personal experiences than those details of the event itself.
Traumatic event memory
memories of emotionally traumatic events are accurately retained, possibly forever, in considerate detail. stress-related hormones being released probably account for the durability and vividness of traumatic memories
a defense mechanism by which a person is so traumatized by an event that he or she forgets it. Then later forgets to forget the event. The main function is to protect the individual from threatening information.
occurs when individuals forget something because it is so painful or anxiety laden that remembering is intolerable
Eye witness testimony
has a lot of distortion, bias, and inaccuracy in memory
occurs when the information was never entered into long-term memory
people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember.
when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later
occurs when material learned later disrupts the retrieval of information learned later
states that neurochemical memory traces disintegrate over time. therefore the passage of time always increases forgetting
type of effortful retrieval associated with a person's feeling that he or she knows something (like a word or a name) but cannot quite pull it out of memory.
Time-based prospective memory
out intention to engage in a given behavior after a specified amount of time has gone by, such as calling someone in an hour.
Event-based prospective memory
when a person intends to do something that is elicited by some external event or cue. The cues make this memory more effective than time-based.
the loss of memory
a memory disorder that affects the retention of new information and events. What they knew before the event is not effected.
memory loss for a segmented of the past but not new events. much more common than other amnesia forms.
What are three tips for more meaningful organization in order to improve memory?
1. accurately review your notes to make sure the information is correct
2. organize the material in a way that will help you commit it to memory.
3. experiment with different organization techniques.
After we organize information, how can we more effectively encode it?
pay attention, elaborate on the material-make associations to your life, use imagery,
Name some tips for rehearsal?
rewrite, retype your notes. talk to people about what you have learned. Test yourself, ask questions. Rest and nourish your brain.
Name some tips for retrieval?
use retrieval cues, like sitting in the same seat, sit comfortably, take a deep breath and stay calm
Why is autobiographical memory so important?
allows us to learn from our experiences, allows us to understand ourselves and gives us an identity. allows us to socially bond. Sharing personal stories allows up to foster intimacy, create bonds, and deepen existing ties.
How can we some what protect against the mental decline of age?
lead an active intellectual life.
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