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Government 2019 Quiz Prep #5
Terms in this set (26)
The FEC administers all
federal law dealing with campaign finance.
The FEC is an
independent agency in the executive branch.
Its 6members are appointed by
the president and confirmed by the Senate.
Federal Campaign finance laws are both strongly worded and detailed. However
they are not very well enforced.
This is due largely to the fact that the FEC is both
underfunded and understaffed.
The laws that the FEC are supposed to enforce
cover 4broad areas.
Congress has placed limits on
"Hard Money." Hard Money is defined as contributions that are given directly to candidates for their campaigns.
Funds given to parties or to other political organizations in unlimited amounts.
Congress did pass the BCRA legislation in 2002 to try and regulate this "soft money." It prohibited soft money contributions to political parties. However it is largely ineffective as
a number organizations with "no official" ties to political parties sprang up to do the job for them.
Right to be treated equally regardless of
race, ethnicity, sex, or other personal characteristic.
In other words every citizen has the right
to be free from discrimination.
The US has a long history of
inequality and unfair treatment of certain people or groups.
Negative opinion formed without grounds.
Discrimination/unfair treatment based on race.
Brown V Board of Education Supreme Court Case Overruled the previous
Plessy V Ferguson "Separate but equal" ruling. Court ruled 9-0 that segregation in public schools was illegal.
George Wallace, the Democratic Governor of Alabama, in a symbolic attempt to keep his inaugural promise of
"segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" stood at the door to try to block the entry of two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Often called the Open Housing Act
Initially the burden of enforcing the law fell on the victims themselves. In 1988 Congress strengthened the law allowing
criminal charges to be charged against those who violate its terms.
Title IX Forbids discrimination on the basis of
gender in any educational program or activity receiving Federal assistance.
University of California Versus Bakke. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Allan Bakke who believe he had been denied admission to medical school on
the basis of being "white."
Jennifer Gratz applied for admission to the
University of Michigan in 1997.
Barbara Grutter sought admission that same year to
the UM law school.
Both Grutter and Gratz are white and both were rejected in favor of minority applicants with
lower GPA's and lower entry test scores. Both women sued the University and its chief admissions officer Lee Bollinger from using race as a factor.
However they ruled against Grutter 5-4 believing that the law school employed
a much more flexible process in make its admission decisions.
Supreme Court ruled in Gratz's favor by a 6-3 vote stating that Gratz's rejection was the result of
a race based quota system that did violate the 14th amendment's equal protection clause.
Majority of the court found that UM has a compelling interest in the diversity of the student body and therefore this justifies the use of
race as one factor in student admissions.
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