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HHP 2553 Exam 4
Terms in this set (66)
What does a golf ball and tee represent?
ball and socket joint (allows a lot of ROM, more than any other in the body)
What are the 3 bones that make up shoulder joint?
Clavicle, scapula, humerus
What does heat do to tissue?
Heat shrinks tissue
fibrocartilage ring that deepens glenoid cavity. Similar to meniscus in the knee
What are the rotator cuff muscles? (SITS)
supraspinatus (abduction), infraspinatus (external rotation), teres minor (external rotation), subscapularis (internal rotation)
Internal (medial) rotation
closer to the midline of the body
External (lateral) rotation
farther away from the midline of the body
What do muscle contractions do for joints?
it stabilizes them. (bodybuilders' joints are protected but they don't have any ROM)
Muscle shortens when it's tightened
"lengthens when it strengthens"
Which way can more weight be lifted?
What makes bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles weak?
Poor nutrition (lack of something in one's diet)
What are the 3 grades of a muscle tear?
Grade 1- small (stretching)
2- partial thickness tear
3- complete tear
What causes a clavicle fracture?
direct blow to clavicle
What signs and symptoms of a clavicular fracture?
grating sensation, deformity (may be obvious, or palpating), pain
Management of a clavicular fracture
immobilize and refer. Can be treated by wearing a sling to keep the arm and shoulder from moving. More serious cases require surgery
caused by falling on outstretch arm or forceful backward blow
Shoulder dislocation (continued)
Decreased ROM, athlete holding arm and head toward injury
Dislocation (1st timers)
pops out and stays out
can go back in on its own
AC (acromioclavicular) Sprain
Mechanism- direct blow or falling on outstretched arm (most common ways to do it)
How are AC sprains graded?
Graded by how many ligaments are torn
When can athletes return from and AC sprain?
Can return when pain free, full ROM is back, increased strength, sport specific activity
AC sprains vs. clavicular fractures
Clavicular fractures aren't as far out as AC sprains
SC (sternoclavicular) sprain
-These are deadly (higher respiratory stress if posterior)
-Refer all grades of posterior SC sprains
-911 and don't move grade 2&3 sprains
-Rotator cuff (SITS)
throwing, throwing angle
-S/S- tenderness, weakness, decresed ROM
increase ROM, change mechanically if needed
(overhand throw isn't a natural movement)
happens to side arm throwers, heavy lifting can cause this
Fractures (Rib & Sternum)
-Treated like collar bone fracture
-May be surgical (they'll pin it)
-S/S- pain with laughing, deep breaths, coughing
-Swelling bruising, tenderness, deformity
Shoulder Impingement Syndrome
caused by improper biomechanics, the tendons of the shoulder are inflamed (if one swells, all will be affected)
What will increases strength of rhomboids do for shoulder impingement syndrome?
it'll take pressure off of the structure that are underneath
Stretching of brachial plexus (usually tackler gets hurt) You'll get numbness, burning, and tingling down arm and hand
Return to play for stingers
Can return to play when pain is gone. Pain always works down the arm and then goes away in the upward direction
what does the Cowboy collar do?
keeps head moving from side to side
What are the 3 bones that make up the elbow?
humerus, radius (thumb side), ulna (pinky side)
Connect bone to bone
medial collateral ligament
lateral collateral ligament
forarm muscles attach to medial and lateral epicondyle
ROM (in forearm)
Radial nerve- innervates 1 and 2
Ulnar- Innervates 4 and 5
Medial nerve- longest finger
What causes elbow dislocations?
Happens because of forceful extension, falling on outstretched arm
falling on outstretched arm
Management- split and refer (self splint/stabilize)
Direct impact at elbow (Olecranon bursa)
•Presentation- fluid filled sac
•Management- wear compressive sleeve, steroid injection, drain with needle, physically remove bursa
-Acute (forced extension)
medial epicondylitis- overuse injury
-Overuse of Muscles
-"Little Leaguer's elbow
acute/chronic, backhand causes this (due to overuse)
Prevention & management-stretching massage, stopping activity, wearing braces
What sports do hamate fracture occur in?
baseball and racquet sports
What type of tissue is on the palmar side of the hands?
a lot of connective tissue
Anatomical snuff box
Scaphoid- Most commonly fractured bone in hand (semi-avascular, poor blood supply and doesn't heal well) requires surgery
Forced extension- falling on outstretched arm
fracture of the fingers
Finger tendon strain
management- splint for 3 weeks
Swan neck fracture- DIP joint
Baseball catcher- catches ball off of thumb or digs thumb into ground
Ball and socket joint
•Decreases ROM some
•Fracture can happen with dislocation
•Tissue death (avascular)
What is the most common place to fracture? (ball and socket joint)
longest and strongest bone in the body
Quadriceps, IT band crosses knee and attaches on tibia
glutes and hamstrings
Superior wall= inguinal ligament
Medial wall= ADDuctor longus
Lateral wall= sartorius
-Notice hip external rotation
-Check distal NV
-No proper rest
-Females> males (all stress fractures)
-Eliminate cause 2-4 weeks (if catch early enough, if not surgery is required, and healing time is a lot longer)
Stress fracture (continued)
•Side stitch- running
•Low back strain
•Can see this in gymnastics and Offensive Lineman
Why are females at greater risk of fractures compared to males?
it has to do with bone density and menstrual cycle
Posterior hip dislocation
Shoulder Impingement Syndrome
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