The Periodic Table (Walz)
Terms in this set (61)
what did Dobereiner do?
classified elements into groups of 3 called triads
what did Newlands do?
classified elements in order of increasing atomic mass. developed the law of octaves (pattern of repeating element characteristics every 8th element)
what did Mendeleev do?
arranged his table based on increasing atomic mass. predicted the existence of new undiscovered elements based upon gaps in the table pattern
what did Moseley do?
developed a table based upon increasing atomic number
what did Moseley's arrangement of a table based upon increasing atomic number lead to?
development of the periodic law
what does the periodic law state?
when elements are arranged by atomic number, their physical and chemical properties show a repeating pattern
what are the vertical columns called?
groups or families
group 1 name, valence electrons, and charge
alkali metals, 1, +1
group 2 name, valence electrons, and charge
alkaline earth metals, 2, +2
groups 3-12 name, valence electrons, and charge
transition metals, 1-3, +1-+3
group 13 name, valence electrons, and charge
boron family, 3, +3
group 14 name, valence electrons, and charge
carbon family, 4, +-4
group 15 name, valence electrons, and charge
nitrogen family, 5, -3
group 16 name, valence electrons, and charge
oxygen family, 6, -2
group 17 name, valence electrons, and charge
halogens, 7, -1
group 18 name, valence electrons, and charge
noble gases, 8, 0
what are the horizontal rows called and how many are there?
series or periods, 7
The number of elements/period ________ from period 1 to 7
period 1: __ elements (___)
period 2 and 3: _____ elements (_____)
8, (s and p)
period 4 and 5: _____ elements (_____)
18, (s, p, and d)
period 6 and 7: _______ elements (______)
32, (s, p, d, and f)
characteristics of metals
- good conductors
- high melting point
- malleable and ductile
- 1-4 valence electrons
- lose valence electrons (+ions)
characteristics of nonmetals
- poor conductors
- no luster
- low melting point
- 5-8 valence electrons
- gain valence electrons (- ions)
characteristics of metalloids
- moderate luster
- moderate melting point
- 3-7 valence electrons
- gain/lose electrons (both ions)
consists of all elements in groups 1 and 2 whose valence electrons are in s orbitals only
the _________ of the s orbital is the same as the element's period number
principal quantum number
why does the s block contain only 2 groups?
because an s orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons
consists of elements in groups 13-18 whose valence electrons are in the p orbitals only
why is the p block 6 elements wide?
because p orbitals can hold up to 6 electrons
consists of the transition metals groups 3-12
why is the d block 10 elements wide?
because d orbitals can hold up to 10 electrons
consists of the 28 rare earth elements in the lanthanoid and actinoid series
why is the f block 14 elements wide
because an f sublevel can hold up to 14 electrons
the distance from the center of an atom's nucleus to its outermost electron
atomic radius _____ as you move down a group (more energy levels)
atomic radius _______ as you move from left to right across a period
why does atomic radius decrease as you move from left to right across a period?
because there's a stronger nuclear pull, electrons are pulled inward and atom shrinks
when an atom loses electrons or becomes a positive ion, it becomes _______
when an atom gains electrons or becomes a negative ion, it becomes _______
what is the deciding factor on which ion is larger?
how many energy levels are occupied
the energy needed to remove one of an atom's electrons
ionization energy (units: J/atom or KJ/mole)
ionization energy _______ as you move down a group
why does ionization energy decrease as you move down a group?
less attraction, farther from nucleus
ionization energy _____ as you move from left to right across a period
why does ionization energy increase as you move from left to right across a period?
greater attraction, closer to nucleus, closer to octet, more strongly hold onto valence electrons
more protons= _______
less protons= _______
if two atoms have the same energy levels, check _______ number
the energy change that occurs when an atom gains an electron
electron affinity (unit: KJ/mole)
what kind of process is electron affinity?
what can electron affinity also be considered as?
a measure of an atom's attraction for an extra electron
what does negative electron affinity mean?
elements release energy to gain electrons
_______ tend to have more negative electron affinity than metals (except ________)
nonmetals, noble gases
what is electron affinity related to?
the number of electrons needed to fill the outer energy level
what is the octet rule?
atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons to acquire a full set of valence electrons (8)
negative energy value- ______ process
positive energy value- _______ process
what does a Lewis structure of an atom consist of?
the element symbol surrounded by dots represent the valence electrons of the atom (know dot pattern)
how do you write noble gas notation?
1. identify the previous noble gas ahead of your element in terms of atomic number
2. put the symbol of this noble gas in brackets
3. behind the brackets, put the electron notation for the remaining electrons in your atom
more energy levels= ________
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Guillory AP Midterm Terms
Midterm People (APUSH)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Lab Equipment (Walz)
Half-life and Transmutation (Walz)
The Development of a New Atomic Model/Quantum Numbers (Walz)