14 terms

DP Biology Vocabulary - 2.6 Structure of DNA and RNA

Essential vocabulary for the IBO DP Biology course
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Adenine
an organic base found in DNA and RNA in which it pairs with thymine (or uracil).
Complementary base pairs
the standard arrangement of bases in nucleotides in relation to their opposite pairing, such as cytosine paired with guanine and adenine with thymine (or uracil in RNA).
Cytosine
an organic base found in DNA and RNA in which it pairs with guanine.
DNA polymerase
an enzyme that catalyses the elongation of new DNA during replication.
DNA
a nucleic acid consisting of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA.
Guanine
an organic base found in DNA and RNA in which it pairs with cytosine.
Hydrogen bond
a chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom of another molecule.
Nucleic acids biological
molecules, such as DNA or RNA, composed of nucleotides that control cellular functions and heredity.
Nucleotides
the building blocks of nucleic acids consisting of a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group.
Polymer
a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar monomers linked together.
RNA
a nucleic acid consisting of a long single-stranded chain of nucleotides involved in protein synthesis.
RNA polymerase
an enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA during transcription.
Thymine
an organic base found in DNA, but not in RNA, that pairs with adenine.
Uracil
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA, but not in DNA, that pairs with adenine.
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