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DP Biology Vocabulary - 2.7 DNA replication, transcription and translation
Essential vocabulary for the IBO DP Biology course
Terms in this set (23)
building block of proteins consisting of a basic amino group (NH2), an acidic carboxylic group (COOH), a hydrogen atom (-H), and an organic side group (R) attached to the carbon atom.
three consecutive bases on tRNA that are complementary to a codon on mRNA.
each sequence of three bases standing for one of the 20 possible amino acids.
Complementary base pairing
is the standard arrangement of bases in nucleotides in relation to their opposite pairing, such as cytosine paired with guanine and adenine with thymine (or uracil in RNA).
there are more codons (64) than there are amino acids to be coded, so most amino acids are coded by more than one code.
an enzyme that catalyses the elongation of new DNA during replication.
the order of bases in DNA that determines the sequence of amino acids in proteins.
an enzyme involved in DNA replication, responsible for unwinding the double helix.
a chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom of another molecule.
a hormone that lowers blood glucose levels by synthesizing glycogen.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
a type of RNA that attaches to ribosomes and specifies the sequence of amino acids in a protein.
the building blocks of nucleic acids consisting of a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a technique for amplifying DNA in vitro.
a polymer of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
several ribosomes that are attached to the same mRNA at one time.
Replication of DNA
making a copy of a DNA molecule.
cell organelle that functions as the site of protein synthesis.
an enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA during transcription.
in the process of DNA synthesis each original strands of the molecule acts as a template on which a new complementary strand is created.
Taq DNA polymerase
a heat resistant enzyme found in the bacillus Thermus aquaticus, which lives in hot springs, that can endure the high temperatures of the polymerase chain reaction.
when the DNA sequence of bases is converted into mRNA.
when the sequence of bases on mRNA is decoded into an amino acid sequence (proteins).
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
an RNA molecule that brings specific amino acids that match the codons in the mRNA.