10 terms

DP Biology Vocabulary - 3.5 Genetic modification and biotechnology

Essential vocabulary for the IBO DP Biology course
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Clones
a group of genetically identical cells or individuals.
DNA ligase
a linking enzyme essential for DNA replication.
DNA profiling (DNA fingerprinting)
the analysis of a small amount of genetic material, which is as unique per individual as a fingerprint is, as an aid to identification.
Embryo
the earliest stages in the development of a new plant or animal from a fertilized ovum and entirely dependent on nutrients supplied by the parent.
Gel electrophoresis
the separation of nucleic acids or proteins on the basis of their size and electrical charge by measuring their rate of movement through a gel.
Genetic modification
the change to the genetic constitution of an organism by artificial methods.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating it with primers, DNA polymerase, and nucleotides.
Plasmid
the DNA of prokaryote in the circular chromosome.
Restriction endonucleases
an enzyme that cuts DNA at specific sites, producing small fragments used in genetic engineering.
Somatic cell
all body cells except sex cells (cells producing gametes).
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