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57 terms

Bio Vocab Ch. 21 (Tri. 2)

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ingestion
the act of eating
digestion
the breaking down of food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb
absorption
the cells lining the digestive tract take up (absorb) the products of digestion
elimination
undigested material passes out of the digestive tract
gastrovascular cavity
a digestive compartment with a single opening
mouth
the single opening where food is ingested
alimentary canal
a digestive tract with two openings a mouth and an anus
pharynx
the throat which food passes through
esophagus
channels food to a crop, gizzard, or stomach
crop
pouch like organ in which food is softened and stored
stomach
an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal, which stores food
gizzard
thick-walled muscular pouch below the crop in many birds and reptiles for grinding food
intestine
chemical digestion and nutrient absorption occur here
anus
undigested materials are expelled here
sphincters
ringlike valves which regulate the passage of food into and out of the stomach
peristalsis
alternating wavs of contraction and relaxation of the stomach muscle lining the canal
saliva
produced by salivary glands, break down food
oral cavity
where saliva comes from the ducts
salivary glands
secrete more than a liter of saliva in a day
bolus
a ball of food shaped by the tongue
gastric juice
secreted by the stomach, made up of mucus, enzymes, and strong acid
gastrin
a hormone released into the circulatory system
chyme
the broken down watery food and water
small intestine
digests larger molecules
pancreas
produces pancreatic juices, a mixture of digestive enzymes, alkaline solution, rich in biocarbonate
liver
produces bile
bile
contains bile salts that emulsify fats, making them more susceptible to attack by digestive enzymes
gallbladder
stores bile until it is needed by the small intestine
duodenum
The first section of the small intestine, 25 cm
villi
large circular folds with numerous, small finger like projections
microvilli
each of the epithelial cells lining and villius has many tiny surface projections
hepatic portal vein
large vessel that transports nutrients absorbed by the intestines directly to the liver
large intestine/colon
1.5 m long, and 5cm diameter, Reclaims water and compacts the feces
cecum
The first portion of the large intestine, the T arm
appendix
a small fingerlike extension of the cecum, contains a mass of white blood cells that make a minor contribution to immunity
rectum
feces is stored in this final portion of the colon
feces
waste products, indigestible plant fibers, and prokaryotes
essential nutrients
materials that must be obtained in preassembled form because the animal cell's cannot make them from raw material
undernourishment
a condition resulting from a diet that is chronically deficient in calories
malnourishment
results from the long-term absence in the diet of one or more essential nutrients
essentially fatty acids
obtained through our diet, it is needed to make some of the phospholipids of a cell membrane
essential amino acids
obtained from diet, the 8 we cannot naturally make
vitamin
an organic nutrient we must obtain from our diet, in minute amounts
mineral
simple inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts
emulsification
process in which bile breaks down fat
ulcer
an open sore on the skin or mucous membrane that can bleed and scar and is sometimes accompanied by infection
HCL
hydrochloric acid
lipid digestion
prepared for digestion by bile secreted by liver and stored in gallbladder (increases surface area) ; lipase acts upon it in small intestine and produces fatty acids and glycerol; liver digests glycerol
carbohydrate digestion
mainly in small intestine, breaks down maltase, sucrase, lactase to glucose
lipase
Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
amylase
enzyme in saliva that breaks down starches and carbohydrates
pepsin
breaks down proteins in stomach
constipation
too much water absorbed
diarrhea
too little water absorbed
carbohydrates
sugars/starches digested in the mouth and small intestine
fruits/fiber
not taken in by the body
fats
nutrient that stores energy, cushions organs, and helps the body absorb vitamins