1 / 104
What are the four stages of reproductive behavior?
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (104)
- emit stimuli that attract members of the opposite sex
- females are attracted to sex specific traits (specific to males, like large muscles, deep voice, etc)
- males are attracted to the smell of estrogen (midcycle). Estrogen fluctuates across the menstrual cycle, when female is most fertile is when estrogen levels are the highest. Estrogen is very important for our skin. Baboons and monkeys develop sex skin, skin on their rumps swell from the estrogen
What are post-copulatory behaviors, and what are three examples?- varies across species. - 1. Refractory phase & Coolidge effect - 2. Copulatory lock - 3. Maternal behaviors: nursing and protecting the young, etcHow is erection normally inhibited in males, and how do anti-depressants affect the ability of males to achieve an erection?- spinal cord initiates rejection reflex. - reflex is inhibited by neurons (serotonergic neurons) coming from the brain stem -antidepressants like SSRI's increase the amount of serotonin in brain which inhibits erection reflex. So, if you have extra serotonin, it is harder to get an erectionWhat is a refractory phase, and which sex has one?- time period when a male cannot copulate again - can last from minutes, to hours, to monthsWhat is the Coolidge effect?- a male can resume sexual activity more quickly with a new partner. - refractory phase is shorter if males have sex with a new partner.What is copulatory lock?- the penis will swell after ejaculation and cannot be removed from female right away. (not in humans)What controls whether a female will exhibit maternal behaviors and how was this determined?- controlled by hormones that are present during pregnancy. - rat experiments, a pregnant and rat and a rat that has never been pregnant, are connected and share a blood supply... they find if a virgin rat is exposed to these hormones then she will have maternal behaviorsWhat are biological rhythms?- - regular fluctuations, a cyclical or reoccurring patter in a living process - ex: menstrual cycleWhat are circadian rhythms, and what are three examples of circadian rhythms?- lasts about one day. Circa means about and adian means day. - 1. Body temperature: lowest right after you fall asleep. Reaches its peak mid to late afternoon. - 2. Mood: we are in the best mood in the evening hours 8 pm or so. And the moods drop - 3. Sleep/wake cycle:How is the sleep/wake cycle measured in hamsters?- hamsters are nocturnal and like. To sleep during the day and be awake at night. When awake they are pretty much on running wheel entire time. - they have a hamster in a cage and mark down when its running on wheel. do this for several days. - in room w normal lighting: running on wheel when darkWhat is a zeitgeber, and what is the most common zeitgeber?- synchronizing stimulus, a cue that tells you when you should be active and when you should be asleep. - light is the most common zeitgeberWhat is a change in activity in response to a zeitgeber referred to as?- phase shift: (turning the light on a different times) - happens when you travel across different time zonesWithout a zeitgeber, how long is the human sleep/wake cycle, and how was this determined?- 25 hoursHow did lesion and transplant studies contribute to the discovery of the circadian clock?- hamster experiment. transplanting brain tissue from one individual to another in which the recipient subsequently displayed the donors behavior. within the SCN itself there must be a mechanism that can drive a circadian rhythm in activity, and this biological clock is affected by a mutation called of the gene taoHow does light influence melatonin secretion in birds?- birds do not have a-lot of cortex on brain & have thin skulls light activates pineal gland directly when its no longer light out, it releases melatonin.What does "free-running" mean, and do humans have a free-running cycle?- maintain a cycle with no external cues (no light, etc.) - yes, humans have a free running cycle.What is the retinohypothalamic pathway, and how is it involved in melatonin secretion in humans?- the route by which retina ganglion cells send their axons to the suprachiasmatic nuclei. this pathway carries information about light to hypothalamus. in mammals, cells in the eye tell the SCN when it is light out.How does the human sleep/wake cycle change with age?-start by early risers ---> late risers ----> early risers againWhat structure is the "circadian clock", and where is it located?- Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) located in the hypothalamus - located above optic chiasmHow does the clock gene influence the sleep/wake cycle?- people who feel energetic in the morning ("larks") are likely to carry a different version of the clock gene than "night owls" have. different versions of other genes in the molecular clock are also associated with being a lark versus a night owl.What structure secretes melatonin, and why is melatonin referred to as the "Dracula of hormones"?- melatonin is secreted from the pineal gland. Melatonin is referred to as the "Dracula of hormones" because bright light will inhibit the release of melatonin and will only come out in the dark. Even if the pineal gland is switched "on" by the body clock, it will not produce melatonin unless the person is in a dimly lit environment.What is the difference between an "owl" and a "lark", and which gene controls whether someone is an owl or a lark?- people who feel energetic in the morning ("larks") are likely to carry a different version of the clock gene than "night owls" have. different versions of other genes in the molecular clock are also associated with being a lark versus a night owl.How does the tau gene influence the sleep/wake cycle?- hamster research. normally, hamsters free-run at a period slightly longer than 24 hours, but this male showed a free-running period of 22 hours. half of its offspring also had a shorter circadian rhythm, indicating that he had a genetic mutation (tau) affecting the clock.What four physiological measures are used to classify different sleep states?•Electroencephalography (EEG) •Eye movements •Muscle tension •Heart rateWhat is EEG, and what is EEG activity like in an awake person?- EEG is the recording of gross electrical activity of the brain via large electrodes placed on the scalp.Describe the 4 sleep stages and physiological events that characterize each one.In which sleep stage is muscle tone completely lost?- REMWhat is the only way to know if a person is dreaming?- by asking themDuring which sleep stage does most dreaming occur, and what is the difference between dream reports from slow wave sleep and dream reports from REM?- during REM. 80% in REM will say there were dreaming and 9% of them from non rem sleepWhy is it difficult to study dreams?- they are easily forgotten and they are self-reportedHow does Freud's psychoanalytic theory explain why we dream?- it reflects are unconcious dislikes, thoughts . and motivationsHow does the activation-synthesis hypothesis explain why we dream?- its random patterns of activity in the cortex; its spontaneous recombination of elementsWhat is a typical night of sleep like for a young adult?- 7 to 8 hours for 19-30 years old.What is a sleep cycle, how long does a sleep cycle last, and what is different between cycles at the beginning vs. the end of the night?- lasts around 90 minutes. longer slow wave sleep happens earlier in night, longer rem sleep happens later in the nightWhen do infants develop a sleep/wake cycle, and what are two ways in which the sleep of infants differs from the sleep of adults?- starts at 4 months. their sleep cycles are 50-60 min, their REM is 50% of sleep. they sleep up till 16 hoursHow does sleep in older adults differ from sleep in young adults, and which sleep stage is most affected?- you get less slow wave sleep as you get older. wake up periods get more frequent and sleep hours go from 7 to 8 to 5-6What type of mammals do not have REM sleep and why?- aquatic animals: they cant lose all muscle toneWhat is unique about slow-wave sleep (SWS) in aquatic mammals and birds?- they only have one hemisphereWhat happens when people are deprived of sleep?- get irritated, have harder time concentrating, get disorientatedWhat is recovery sleep, and how does it differ from normal sleep?- its getting more sleep than normal after sleep deprivation. first night it recovers slow wave sleep and second night it recovers REMWhat is recovery sleep, and how does it differ from normal sleep?What are the consequences of prolonged total sleep deprivation?= the immune system starts to fail, leading to death. (19 days for rats)What is fatal familial insomnia?- 7 to 24 months without sleepWhat evidence suggests that we sleep to conserve energy?- ancient ancestors needed a lot of energy when it was light out to complete the tasks needed for survival. Like gathering food, etc. - when its dark out, you go to sleep to conserve energy. - animals in the wild, in times of food shortages, they sleep more. They sleep more bc they have less access to food (less energy)What evidence suggests that sleep has restorative effects on the body?- without sleep, the immune system becomes compromised. You get sick more easily... didn't sleep so didn't have time to replenish - people who sleep less than 6 hours a night, within the next 6 years. - toxins in the brain are cleared out during sleepWhat two studies suggest that sleep is important for memory consolidation, and what sleep stage is thought to be especially important for memory consolidation?- we sleep to consolidate our memories. Where our memories are strengthened. When we are awake during the day, we are taking in info and when we sleep, we decide what we keep or get rid of and then decide whether that memory gets integrated - studied word lists, participants tested after retention interval filled with wake or sleep - slow wave sleep is the sleep stage. - study: passed electrical currents thru ppls scalps that mimic slow waves for 30 min while asleep, showed a greater memory improvement compared to the night the did not receive the electrical stimulationWhat area of the brain is thought to control slow-wave sleep and why?- basal forebrain. - being awake and being on other sleep stages is controlled by hindbrainWhat is the isolated brain technique?- take an animal and sever the connection between their brain and spinal cord. They artificially profuse blood thru the head and put electrodes on the head to see if the animal would go to sleep and they found that yes it did. - sleep is really controlled by the brainWhat is the function of the reticular formation?- wakes you upWhat brain area is thought to control REM sleep?- PonsWhat is sleep paralysis, and why does it occur?- you wake but are paralyzed - neurons in the pons are still inhibiting the motor neurons which are responsible for movementsWhat is narcolepsy?- frequent sleep attacks and excessive daytime sleepiness. Person falls asleep out of nowhere - when they fall asleep, they go right into rem sleep.What is cataplexy?- person suddenly loses all muscle tone but you are not asleep, still awake but you can't move your muscles.What is orexin, and where are neurons that secrete orexin located?- orexin is responsible for narcolepsy. Regulates sleep and waking up - only released by cells in the hypothalamus and project to other sleep centers and control when they are active - dog studies w genetic mutationWhat is the function of the hypothalamus with regard to sleep?- only released by cells in the hypothalamus and project to other sleep centers and control when they are activeWhat are three sleep disorders observed mainly in children that occur during slow wave sleep?- 1st. night terrors: you wake up with intense anxiety. You feel like you cant breath. Happens typically during slow wave sleep. - 2nd: sleep enuresis: treatment is to give vasopressin - 3rd: sleep walking: tends to run in families.What is REM behavior disorder?- when people act out their dreams. - after age 50, more common in men and usually perceives Parkinson's diseaseWhat is sleep apnea, what is the treatment, and how is SIDS related to sleep apnea?- sleep apnea is when ppl have difficulty breathing during sleep. - treatment: to wear a mask, which forces air down the airway - SIDS: infants die mysteriously. Ppl hypothesize that their respiratpry systems are immatureWhat is the difference between sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia?- sleep onset: trouble falling asleep initially, usually associated with changes to your routine - sleep maintenance: trouble staying asleep. You fall asleep fine but wake up in the middle of the night. Ppl with respiratory disorders, drugs, etcHow do over-the-counter sleeping pills work and how do prescription pills work?- over the counter: typically have antihistamines in them which are used to treat allergies, produced in our immune system to fight of shit in the body. - prescription sleeping pills: (ambien) agonists of GABA.What are three major drawbacks of prescription sleeping pills?- They don't provide you with a normal amount of sleep. Ppl will have adverse side effects, like when you wake up, you are still drowsy. Ppl also do crazy things and won't remember it. They become ineffective with continued use.What is a psychiatric disorder?- an abnormal behavior is exhibited.What is paralytic dementia, what is the cause, and how did this condition contribute to our understanding of psychiatric disorders?- paralytic dementia is when ppl has delusions which are false beliefs, despite contrary evidence. - they discovered that ppl who contracted syphilis, showed the same symptoms which would then go away with antibiotics. So they figured they would give the ppl w paralytic dementia antibiotics too.What are delusions?- false beliefs, despite contrary evidence.What are positive symptoms of schizophrenia?- behaviors that are gained. (extra behaviors that ppl without schizophrenia do not exhibit) things like hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thoughts/speechWhat are negative symptoms of schizophrenia?- behaviors that are lost. Things like blunted emotions (might not express emotions or express them inappropriately)What are cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia?- problems processing external information. memory or attention problems, poor decision making, abnormal movement patternsAt what age do people develop schizophrenia, and in which sex is it most common?- affects more males than females. 7 to 5 ratio - age of onset is young adulthood 18- 25 yearsHow does body odor relate to schizophrenia?- described as a ripe smelling fruitHow do we know that schizophrenia has a genetic component, and how do we know that genes alone cannot fully explain the cause of schizophrenia?- monozygotic twins: 50% - dizygotic twins: 17% - multiple genes: DISC1 gene (other factors involved)How is paternal age related to schizophrenia and why isn't maternal age related?- as the father gets older, the chance that he will have a child w schizophrenia. Increases - females are born w all the eggs she will have will men are constantly always making eggsWhat are 3 stressors that can contribute to the development of schizophrenia?- 1st: prenatal stress - 2nd: transition from childhood to adulthood - 3rd: city living: big city livingWhat is the integrative model of schizophrenia?- whether or not you get schizophrenia is going to depend on the interaction of stress and genesWhat are 3 brain changes are observed in individuals with schizophrenia?- large cerebral ventricles - corpus collosum is thicker - metabolic activity in frontal lobesWhat early treatment for schizophrenia involved surgically separating the frontal lobes from the rest of the brain, and was it effective?- Lobotomy - was not effectiveWhat are antipsychotics and how do first-generation antipsychotics work?- first-generation antipsychotics are the first ones that were developed - helped positive symptomsWhat is the dopamine hypothesis, and what are two pieces of evidence that support this hypothesis?- maybe shizo is caused by too much dopamine - 1st: if you take a lot of amphetamines' like meth - 2nd: Parkinson's disease: not getting enough dopamineWhat are three problems with the dopamine hypothesis?- 1: time course: doesn't coincide w when the symptoms are reduced. - 2nd: second generation antipsychotics: serotonin antagonists, reducing serotonin. Different in that they are better at treating the negative symptoms. But not influencing dopamine at all - 3rd: glutamate underactivity: ppl think they are not getting enough glutamateHow do second-generation antipsychotics work?- reducing serotonin. Different in that they are better at treating the negative symptoms. But not influencing dopamine at allWhat is the most prevalent mood disorder and what are the symptoms?- depression: loss of energy, pessimism, thoughts of death, etc - 80% of ppl who commit suicide have depression. (impulsive suicide) - bridge studyHow does sleep change with depression?- falling asleep and staying asleep. Less time in slow wave sleepIs there a genetic component to depression?- if you have a relative w depression, you are more likely to have it as well. - monozygotic twins: 60% - dizygotic twins: 20%What structural brain change is linked with depression, and what functional brain changes occur with depression?- right hemisphere cortex is thinner than ppl without depression - greater metabolic activity in frontal cortex and amygdala - less metabolic activity in parietal and temporal cortexWhich gender is more commonly depressed, and what are two explanations for why?- more common in woman - help seeking patterns and female reproductive hormones - birth control, after childbirth, etc - fluctuating level of hormones in womanWhat treatment for depression involves inducing a seizure in the brain?- electro-compulsive shock therapy - can cause amnesia (memory loss)What two drugs are used to treat depression and how does each one work?- monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Block enzymatic degradation from occurring - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) block reuptake of serotoninWhat kind of therapy has been used to treat depression and how effective is it, compared with drugs?- cognitive behavioral therapy aimed at correcting negative thinking - change your thoughts to change your mood which change your behaviors - about the same - most effective treatment is to take both SSRIs with cognitive behavioral therapy as wellWhat three reasons suggest low serotonin is not the sole cause of depression?- SSRIs don't work for everyone - SSRIs increase the risk of suicide in children and adolescents - placebos just as effectiveWhat is bipolar disorder?- depressive periods alternating with periods of maniaWhat brain change occurs in bipolar disorder, and what other psychiatric condition shows the same change?- enlarged ventricles and reduced brain matter - more in common with schizophreniaWhat is OCD and what is the difference between obsessions and compulsions?- OCD: recurring thoughts or engage in repetitive thoughts or actions - obsession: thoughts - compulsions: actionsWhy is it thought that OCD may be triggered by infections?- most commonly developed in-between ages of 25 and 40 - if a child has strep throat, right after, they can develop OCD symptomsWhat is the most effective treatment for bipolar disorder, and what is the disadvantage of this treatment?- lithium: has a narrow therapeutic index (easy to overdose) & ppl don't like to take it so they can experience the manic phase - discovered by accidentWhat is the main change to the brain associated with OCD?- increased blood flow in both frontal cortex and cingulate cortexWhat are three effective treatments for OCD?- 1. Cognitive behavioral therapy - 2. SSRIs - 3. Cingulotomy (for extreme cases)