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65 terms

CCV Biology Final Exam Alvarez

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Cells:
Are the fundamental units that make up all living things
Most accurate statement of why cells stay small:
Surface area of a cell must heed exchange requiremens
Cell Division:
restores the amount of surface area needed for exchange requirements in developing embryos such as a chick
The statement that best describes cell theory:
All living things are make of cells and cells come only from pre-existing cells
Scanning electron microscope
provides a three-dimensional view of the surface of an object
Plasma membrane:
is the phospholipid bilayer that surrounds/maintains the integrity of a cell
Cytoplasm:
the semi-fluid internal medium of a cell that dissolves molecules between the nucleus and cell membrane.
Organelles:
are small membranous structures that occur within the cell and have various functions.
Cytoskeleton:
The internal structures of a cell that maintain its shape and allow it to move
The function of the plasma membrane is:
A. Determines which substances enter and leave the cell. B. serves as a boundary between the cell and its environment. C. contains receptor sites which determine how the cell interacts with its environment.
Osmosis
The diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane.
Cell division is important as related to the size of cells because:
Cell division restores the amount of surface area needed for exchange requirements
Hypertonic:
A salt water solution is hypertonic, which draws water from plants (and human) cells.
In an isotonic solution the number of particles is equal:
CORRECT statement about solute concentrations or particles inside and outside the cell
Facilitated transport:
The assisted transport of a molecule across the cell membrane without an expenditure of energy
Phagocytosis
Example: an amoeba feeding by engulfing is prey with its false feet or pseudopods. As a WBC does to pathogen
Nucleolus:
obvious dark-stained structure withing the nucleus that contains ribosomal RNA
If a cell lacked ribosomes it would not be able to :
synthesize proteins
Proteins, phospholipids
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is important in the synthesis of _____________ and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is important in synthesizing _____________.
Microbodies
Are not part of the cytoskeleton
Tissues:
Specialized cells that work together to perform a common function
Which are considered a basic tissue type?
Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
Epithelial tissue:
tissue that covers body surfaces and lines cavities
Connective tissue:
tissue that binds structures together and provides structural support
Cells, Ground substance, and protein fibers:
The three major components of connective tissue
Collagen
The protein that provides flexibility and strength to connective tissues
Hyaline cartilage
Found in the ends of long bones, ribs, and respiratory passages
NOT a function of the integument
Production of white blood cells
Functions of the integument
protection from pathogen invasion, inhibition of water loss, regulation of body temperature, synthesis of vitamin D
Keratin
Responsible for waterproofing the skin
Accessory organs of the integument
Nails, hair, and glands are all structures of the epidermal origin.
The most correct statement concerning capillaries:
The only site of nutrient, gas exchange, and waste exchange is the capillaries.
What is the function of the valves in the veins?
To prevent the backward flow of blood
Correct statements regarding the heart:
The heart is cone-shaped, is about the size of a human fist, normally tilted toward the left, is between the lungs.
Ventricles:
Are the two lower pumping chambers of the heart.
Diastolic, Systolic:
_______pressure occurs when the ventricles are relaxing and _______occurs when the heart ejects blood.
Veins:
The _______serve as a reservoir for blood.
Myocardium
The heart muscle is known as the ____________.
Right atrium:
The venae cavae carry low-oxygen blood to the _______of the heart.
The major function(s) of blood includes:
transporting oxygen, hormones, and nutrients; carrying waste products; regulating body temperatures and pH; fighting pathogens.
erythrocytes, leukocytes:
RBC's are better known as _______ and WBC's are better known as_______.
Platelets
Are cell fragments and not of whole cells
Hemoglobin is:
found in red blood cells; an oxygen transporter; required for cellular respiration; the pigment that makes blood red.
Mature human red blood cells
are biconcave discs without a nucleus
Formed elements and plasma:
Are the two major components of blood
Pathogens
are organisms such as viruses and bacteria that are capable of causing disease
Capsules
exist in some bacteria and prevent them from being destroyed boy phagocytic WBC and certain one-celled organisms
Binary Fission
Under ideal conditions, some species of bacteria can double their numbers every 12 minutes. This ability is the result of bacteria being capable of___________.
The thymus becomes smaller with age as well as ___________.
helps T lymphocytes learn self from nonself
Unfortunately many people think all bacteria are bad, identify the positive contributions of some bacteria (all are correct)
bacteria can serve as decomposers in the environment, bacteria are important in the wine, cheese and bread industry, bacteria are important in biotechnology, some bacteria are beneficial residents of the digestive tract
Plasmid
An additional ring of DNA found in some bacteria is called a __________.
The following statements that most accurately describe viruses:
They contain a protein coat called a capsid, they may contain genomic DNA or RNA, They are acellular, they are obligate intracellular parasites.
Viruses are capable of multiplying in a host cell because:
viral DNA instructs the cell to produce more of the virus.
Nervous
Prions cause degenerative diseases of the ________system.
New viral pathogens emerge when:
they are transported to different parts of the world, the virus mutates, the virus can be transmitted by a new vector, the immune system cannot recognize a change in the virus.
The lymphatic system:
takes up excess tissue fluid and returns it to the bloodstream; absorbs fats in the intestines; helps the body defend against disease; includes the spleen, thymus, and tonsils
Lacteals
Lymphatic capillaries called the ________are located in the small intestines
Liver, Kidney
are not included as a lymphatic organ
thymus, spleen
Red bone marrow an the __________are considered primary lymphatic organs and lymph nodes and the ______are considered secondary lymphatic organs.
Antigens
Immunity is based on the recognition of antibody stimulating entities known as _________
The following are considered nonspecific defenses:
barriers to entry; inflammatory reaction; natural killer cells; protective proteins
Heather ate yogurt after an intense antibiotic treatment to:
replace her resident bacteria
active, passive
in _____immunity the individual produces antibodies against particular pathogens and in ______immunity the individual is given specific antibodies against a pathogen.
Active immunity
After being exposed to a contagious disease, Jennifer has accumulated a high level of antibodies, yet shows no sign of illness. She is exhibiting:
Active
Larry was immunized against most of the childhood diseases. This represents ________immunity.