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Psychology - 8
Terms in this set (60)
theory of adjustment to aging that assumes older people are happier if they stay active in some way, such a volunteering or starting a hobby
the period of life from about age 13 to the early 20s, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult.
gradual changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system of middle-aged males.
the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver.
style of parenting in which a parent is rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child.
style of parenting in which parents combine warmth and affection with firm limits on a child's behavior.
in Piaget's theory, the tendency of a young child to focus on only one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features.
tightly wound strand of genetic material or DNA.
the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory.
concrete operational stage
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development in which the school-age child becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking.
in Piaget's theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature.
second level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by conforming to society's norms of behavior.
times during which some environmental influences can have an impact on the development of the infant.
research design in which several different participant age-groups are studied at one particular point in time.
research design in which participants are studied by means of a cross- sectional design but are also followed and assessed longitudinally.
often called fraternal twins, occurs when two eggs each are fertilized by separate sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time.
special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism.
referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait.
sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and possessing the ability to let go of regrets; the final completion of the ego.
the inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes.
developing organism from 2 weeks to 8 weeks after fertilization.
the period from 2 to 8 weeks after fertilization, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop.
the union of the ovum and sperm.
the time from about 8 weeks after conception until the birth of the baby.
developing organism from 8 weeks after fertilization to the birth of the baby.
formal operational stage
Piaget's last stage of cognitive development in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking.
the behavior associated with being male or female.
perception of one's gender and the behavior associated with that gender.
section of DNA having the same arrangement of chemical elements.
providing guidance to one's children or the next generation, or contributing to the well-being of the next generation through career or volunteer work.
the science of inherited traits.
first 2 weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining.
the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age, from conception until death
identity versus role confusion
stage of personality development in which the adolescent must find a consistent sense of self.
type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescent's thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are.
an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self.
research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time.
in Piaget's theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action.
the cessation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman's reproductive capability.
identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, each of which develops into a separate embryo.
the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.
the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.
the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight.
the female sex cell, or egg.
style of parenting in which the parents make few, if any demands on a child's behavior.
permissive parenting style in which parents are so involved that children are allowed to behave without set limits.
permissive parenting style in which the parents are uninvolved with the child or child's behavior.
type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm.
third level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the person's behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided on by the individual and which may be in disagreement with accepted social norms.
first level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior.
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world.
the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak.
referring to a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene.
process in which a more skilled learner helps a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable.
mental concept formed through experiences with objects and events.
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development in which the infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment.
the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth, such as "easy," "difficult," and "slow to warm up."
any factor that can cause a birth defect.
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Vygotsky's concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher.
cell resulting from the uniting of the ovum and sperm.
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