Chapter 9: MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
Terms in this set (47)
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS: what are they?
- In September 2000, world leaders came together at the UN headquartes in New York and formalised the United Nations Millennium Declaration
- endorsed by 189 countries, recognised the importance of all countries developing global partnerships that aimed to reduce extreme poverty by 2015 through the achievement of the MDGs.
- MDGs acronym: EAPRICED
GOAL 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger - purpose
- to reduce the level of poverty within developing countries through the development of strategies to promote employment opportunities, particularly for women and young people
greater employment opportunities + income earning capacity >>> expectation in a reduction in number of people suffering from hunger.
- 3 targets
GOAL 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger - reason of importance (1)
Poverty has an enormous impact on morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries, impacting on individuals in:
-not being able to purchase the quantity of food needed to sustain life
-not being able to access the required health care to treat a preventable illness
-not being able to afford shelter to protect individuals and families from danger and extreme environmental conditions.
GOAL 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger - reason of importance (2)
- Without an adequate income, individuals are unable to provide for their most basic needs.
- At a national level, poverty means that a country does not have the economic resources to develop infrastructure and invest in education, health, political and legal systems, and public institutions.
- increased income enables individuals to purchase nutritious foods, reducing proportion of people suffering from hunger >>> improved nutrition improves the health status of individuals >>> improved health promotes human development as individuals have greater opportunities to achieve capabilities.
GOAL 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger - targets (1)
Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than US$1 a day
- measuring extreme poverty enables comparisons to be made between countries to determine the relative level of poverty within a country
GOAL 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger - targets (2)
Target 2: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people
- By providing opportunities for full and productive employment, individuals are able to earn an income, which allows them to improve their circumstances.
- women are often poorer than men, work in jobs involving hard physical labor that can be detrimental to health (i.e. damage to bones and nerves), limited or no access to education
- children usually forced into child labor, no access to education
GOAL 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger - targets (3)
Target 3: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
- Hunger can be defined as the continuing deprivation in a person of the food needed to support a healthy life. Malnutrition refers to a lack of specific nutrients required for the effective functioning of the body.
- Hunger and malnutrition can increase the effects of diseases such as measles and malaria.
GOAL 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger - measuring success
- For the first time since poverty trends have been monitored, the number of people living in extreme poverty and poverty rates fell in every developing region.
- Although high food and fuel prices, and the global financial crisis have had a significant impact on developing countries and slowed the rate of poverty reduction,global poverty rates have continued to decline and MDG1 will be achieved by 2015.
GOAL 2: Achieve universal primary education - purpose
- to provide all boys and girls in developing countries with access to primary schooling to improve literacy and numeracy skills. It also offers opportunities to gain the skills and knowledge to engage in health-promoting behaviours
- 1 target
GOAL 2: Achieve universal primary education - reasons
- education promotes literacy >>> greater employment prospects >>> increasing levels of income >>> improves the individual's capacity to access adequate nutrition, shelter and health care, not only for themselves but also for their family members.
- those who are educated are more likely to understand health-related information, which is vital for promoting positive health outcomes and human development.
- for children to achieve their capabilities + for countries to develop, it is important that all children have the opportunity for a quality education that encompasses basic literacy and numeracy skills.
GOAL 2: Achieve universal primary education - target
Target 1: Ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling
GOAL 2: Achieve universal primary education - measuring success (1)
- due to national and international efforts, significant increases have occurred in the number of children enrolled in primary school.
- However, progress in reducing the number of out-of-school children slowed considerably after 2004
GOAL 3: Promote gender equality and empower women - purpose
- to raise the socioeconomic status of women in developing countries through ensuring that females have equal access to education.
- aims to empower women by increasing opportunities for involvement in decision-making processes that affect themselves, their families, their communities and their countries.
GOAL 3: Promote gender equality and empower women - reason
- females are generally less likely than males to have access to education, employment and health.
- education has the ability to empower women; enables them to access higher paid employment and work in jobs that are less likely to impact negatively on their health.
GOAL 3: Promote gender equality and empower women - target
Target 1: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education by no later than 2015
- Families are less likely to send their female children to school if separate and private toileting facilities are not provided for girls.
- male siblings are often provided with educational opportunitities before their female siblings
GOAL 3: Promote gender equality and empower women - measuring success (1)
- Although parity has been reached in developing regions in terms of primary school education, some countries are still lagging behind. Gender inequality still exists and women continue to face discrimination in access to education, work and participation in government
GOAL 4: Reduce child mortality - purpose
- to reduce the number of deaths of children under the age of five (U5MR)
GOAL 4: Reduce child mortality - reason
- Some of the most deadly causes of disease, such as measles, can be vaccinated against. The risk of diarrhoea can be reduced through breastfeeding and using good hygiene and sanitary practices, and providing access to clean water. Other conditions such as pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics
GOAL 4: Reduce child mortality - target
Target 1: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate (U5MR)
- Children who reach their fifth birthday have a much greater chance of surviving into adulthood when compared with children under the age of five.
- Children born in developing countries have a 13 times greater risk of dying within the first five years than children in developed countries. Many of these deaths are due to preventable causes such as malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea, measles and pneumonia
GOAL 4: Reduce child mortality - measuring success
- Since 1990, there has been a significant decrease in the global child mortality rate due to a number of interventions
GOAL 5: Improve maternal health - purpose
- to improve maternal health by reducing the number of deaths of women that occur as a result of pregnancy and childbirth and to increase access to reproductive services
- the aim is to provide women with the appropriate information and health care to promote health prior to, during and following childbirth
GOAL 5: Improve maternal health - reasons
- Reducing the risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth significantly reduces the maternal mortality rate.
- Maximising the health of mothers enables them to continue in their care giving role, not only for the newborn child but also for other family members.
- Maternal mortality rates can be reduced by the presence of a skilled birth attendant and access to emergency obstetric care
GOAL 5: Improve maternal health - targets (1)
Target 1: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
- Maternal mortality ratio refers to the number of mothers who die as a result of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth, and is measured by the number of maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. - If pregnant women have access to prenatal care and obstetric care, many of these deaths could be prevented
- 5 direct causes of deaths:haemorrhage (excessive bleeding), sepsis (whole body infection), unsafe abortion, obstructed labour and hypertensive disease during pregnancy
GOAL 5: Improve maternal health - targets (2)
Target 2: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
- many women and young girls of reproductive age do not have access to contraceptives or family-planning services, which are important for allowing individuals to plan the number of children they have and the spacing and timing of births
- lack of access to reproductive health services means that pregnant women do not have an understanding of the importance of prenatal and antenatal care, which impacts significantly on the health of the mother as well as the baby. Access to regular check ups decreases the risk of complications
GOAL 5: Improve maternal health - measuring succes
- Although the maternal mortality rate has declined, the progress has not been enough to reach the 2015 target of reducing the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters
GOAL 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases - purpose
- to reduce morbidity and mortality rates from HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases such as tuberculosis.
GOAL 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases - reasons
- they are largely preventable conditions that contribute significantly to the global burden of disease
- Rates of HIV, malaria and other infectious diseases can be significantly reduced through education and behaviour change
GOAL 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases - targets (1)
Target 1: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
- The virus is transmitted via the exchange of infected bodily fluids (blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk)
- These diseases can be halted via the use of preventative measures that are simple and cost-effective and also via education regarding how they are transmitted and how transmission can be prevented
GOAL 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases - targets (2)
Target 2: Achieve by 2010 universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for those who need it
- this target was not met, despite an increase of over 1.4 million people receiving antiretroviral therapy between 2009 and 2010
- there is currently no cure for HIV
- ARV: enables people to control virus,stay healthy for longer, therapy involves combination of 3 or more drugs that stop the virus from being made in the body,slows and may even halt the progression of HIV to AIDS, these drugs do not eliminate the virus from the body and ARV drugs need to be taken continuously.
GOAL 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases - targets (3)
Target 3: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
GOAL 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases - measuring success
- the implementation of key interventions has had a significant impact on reducing the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDs, malaria and other diseases
GOAL 7: Ensure environmental sustainability - purpose
- to maintain the qualities of the physical environment that are considered important for health and human development to ensure they are sustainable (that is, available) for future generations.
- to reduce biodiversity loss and ensure access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, which are important for promoting health and sustainable human development
GOAL 7: Ensure environmental sustainability - reasons
- achieving environmental sustainability means reducing biodiversity loss by balancing the needs of humans with the maintenance of the ecosystems upon which human life depends, ensuring that the necessary resources (i.e. food from plants and animals) continue to be available for both current and future generations
GOAL 7: Ensure environmental sustainability - targets (1a)
Target 1: Integrate principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources
-To reduce destruction of environmental resources that human life depends upon, countries need to make sure policies + programs are developed that ensure the maintenance of ecosystems and the reduction of biodiversity loss, control water and air pollution and reverse the trends leading to global warming.
GOAL 7: Ensure environmental sustainability - targets (1b)
(Target 1 continued)
- the policies and programs of all countries need to address the causes of global warming
- Even short-term fluctuations in weather (extreme heat/cold) as a result of global warming can increase mortality rates from cardiovascular and respiratory conditions (other: flooding, drought)
Reversing the loss of environmental resources:
- Reversing the loss of resources (i.e. forests, clean water) is essential to ensuring environmental sustainability and promoting the health and human development of populations.
GOAL 7: Ensure environmental sustainability - targets (2)
Target 2: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss
- reducing the depletion of the ozone layer in the atmosphere is also important for ensuring the maintenance of the ecosystems within the world
- many of the issues associated with biodiversity loss are due to human activities (i.e. infrastructure: roads, highways and power plants) which often affects a range of species and ecosystems.
GOAL 7: Ensure environmental sustainability - targets (3)
Target 3: Halve by 2015 the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
- water is vital for sustaining human life, 20-50 litres of water free from harmful chemicals and contaminants is needed for the purposes of drinking, cooking and hygiene
- the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces, the maintenance of hygienic conditions through garbage collection and the disposal of waste water >>> reduces risk of diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera and hepatitis
GOAL 7: Ensure environmental sustainability - targets (4)
Target 4: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers
- slum: a heavily populated urban area characterised by substandard housing and squalor
- they are at greater risk of poor health due to the lack of affordable housing, clean water and sanitation
- they are at much greater risk of contracting diseases resulting from lack of sufficient shelter, poor sanitation and contaminated water
(i.e pneumonia, diarrhoea and typhoid )
GOAL 7: Ensure environmental sustainability - measuring success
- progress towards achieving goal has not been consistent for all targets
- global deforestation (mainly caused by the conversion of tropical forests to agricultural land) is slowing, it still continues at a high rate in many countries
- more than 863 million are classified as slum dwellers, although this represents a decline since 2000
- at the current rate of progress, the world will not reach the target of 75 per cent sanitation coverage by 2015.
GOAL 8: Develop a global partnership for development -purpose
- to address the needs of the least developed countries through the provision of official development assistance (ODA), also referred to as aid.
- in order to develop the economy in developing countries the rules of trade must be fair and debt must be reduced.
- having acces to affordable medications, as well as information and communications technology (ICT) are important for improving health and human development in developing countries,
GOAL 8: Develop a global partnership for development - reason
- developed countries are able to assist developing countries in improving their economies to better meet the needs of their people >>> improving living standards >>> results in a reduction in the morbidity and mortality rates in the developing country
- provision of medicines enables developing countries to treat illnesses
- ICT assists in ensuring medical information can be accessed quickly and assists individuals in further developing their businesses and promotes trade.
GOAL 8: Develop a global partnership for development - targets (1)
Target 1: Address the special needs of the least developed countries, land-locked countries and small island developing states
GOAL 8: Develop a global partnership for development - targets (2)
Target 2: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system
- Fair trade means that producers in developing countries are paid a fair price for their products, benefits the world's least developed countries
GOAL 8: Develop a global partnership for development - targets (3)
Target 3: Deal comprehensively with developing countries' debt
- the cost of servicing debts (interest and fees) means that areas such as education, water and sanitation, and health do not receive government funding.
GOAL 8: Develop a global partnership for development - targets (4)
Target 4: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries
- many deaths in developing countries occur as a result of lack of essential drugs and treatments to fight diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.
- in many developing countries, medication is not subsidised by the government and so access to essential medicines is affected by the very high prices that poor people are expected to pay
GOAL 8: Develop a global partnership for development - targets (5)
Target 5: In cooperation with the private sector, make available benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications (ICT)
- access to ICT enables people in developing countries to be engaged in the development of knowledge and skills and move towards goals set for health, education, employment and poverty reduction >>> can increase incomes >>> allows access to health care, nutritious foods and clean water and sanitation for individuals and families >>> improves health status >>> they are more likely to develop to their full potential and lead productive and creative lives in accord with their needs and interests.
GOAL 8: Develop a global partnership for development - measuring success
- official development assistance increased by 63% between 2000 and 2010
- 2.7 per cent decrease in aid
- mobile phone and internet use has increased significantly in developing countries
- Essential medicines are available in only 52 per cent of facilities in the public sector and 69 per cent in the private sector in selected developing countries.
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