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Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Ch. 4
Terms in this set (75)
A eukaryotic cell can ingest a prokaryotic cell how?
The nuclear area of the bacterial cell contains what?
The Bacterial Chromosome
This process occurs in bacterial plasma membranes, but not in eukaryotic plasma membranes?
Consider a gram-positive cell in a hypertonic medium. If the peptidoglycan were damaged, the cell would __________.
The motility of bacteria with flagella occurs through a series of "runs" and __________.
The term describing bacteria with flagella distributed over the entire surface of the cell
Short, prokaryotic appendages made up of pilin are called:
Conjugation Pili are:
Special pili involved in the transfer of DNA from one cell to another
In a phospholipid bilayer, water interacts with the __________ of the phospholipid molecules
Hydrophillic Polar Heads
When essential nutrients are depleted, some strains of bacteria form __________.
Dormant Structures that form within Cells are called:
Mycoplasmas do not have
A Cell Wall
Condensed regions of chromosomes in eukaryotes where rRNA is synthesized
Rough ER is:
Endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosomes attached to its outer surface
The phospholipid "tail" of the Plasma Membrane is:
What are Peripheral Proteins involved in?
2. recognition sites
3. enzymatic function
These Span the entire lipid bilayer AND can be used in the transport of molecules:
A phospholipid bilayer that surrounds the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell is known as what?
cytoplasmic membrane or the cell membrane or the plasma membrane
The common features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are:
4. Plasma Membrane
Prokaryotes include all:
Bacteria and Archaea
A nucleus and membrane bound organelles
The Features of a Prokaryotic Cell:
1. DNA is in the Nucleoid
2. Contains large numbers of ribosomes that are used for protein synthesis
3. Cell respiration occurs in the plasma membrane
4. Outside the plasma membrane of most prokaryotes is a rigid wall which protects the cell from osmotic lysis. The walls of bacteria consist of peptidoglycans. Sometimes there is also an outer capsule. The cell wall of prokaryotes differs chemically from the eukaryotic cell wall of plant cells and of protists.
5. Some bacteria have flagella used for locomotion and/or pili, which are used to connect two cells for genetic material
Eukaryotic Cells contain:
1. Paired Chromosomes in the Nuclear Membrane
3. Membrane Bound Organelles
4. Polysaccharide Cell Walls (if present)
Eukarotic Cells reproduce by:
Mitosis (cell division)
Prokaryotic Cells reproduce by:
Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are:
All Eukaryotic Cells
Name 3 membrane-enclosed organelles specific to Eukaryotic cells
1. Golgi Aparatus
Image Of Eukaryotic Cell
Where are protiens destined to be secreted by the cell synthesized?
In the Rough ER (RER)
What does the organelle Smooth ER do?
1. synthesizes membrane components like fatty acids and phospholipids
2. synthesizes steroid hormones
3. metabolizes carbs
4. detoxifies poisons
A center for the processing and transport of secretory and lysomal protiens as well as for the assembly of membranes is:
The Golgi Apparatus
Selectively regulates the movement of ions and nutrients between the outside of the cell and the inside:
The Plasma Membrane
Organize the spindle for Mitosis and Meiosis
The Endomembrane System of a Eukaryotic cell—consis of:
The nuclear envelope, ER and Golgi apparatus, Vesicles and other Organelles derived from them, and the Plasma Membrane
The Endoplasmic Reticulum DOES NOT contain:
It is a colored body localized in the nucleus.
It is a protein and nucleic acid complex.
It is the cellular structure that contains the genetic material
In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is complexed with protein and organized into linear structures called:
It is a double membrane.
It has pores through which material enters and leaves.
It is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum
The Nuclear Envelope
In the plasma membrane, what part of the protein is within the membrane itself?
The Hydrophobic Region
is the simplest level of packing of the eukaryotic chromosome
Lysosomes are formed by budding from which cellular organelle?
The Golgi Apparatus
All peroxisomes carry out this function:
Break down fats and amino acids into smaller molecules that can be used for energy production by mitochondria
The Goal of every cell is to:
Cholesterol, found in the Plasma Membrane:
gives strength to the cell
is the major component of the cell
3 Common Features of every Eukaryotic Cell:
1. Plasma (or cell) membrane
For the exchange, protection and containment of materials in and out of the cell
70% water; a gel like substance that fills the cell and surrounds/contains small, unique structurescalled organelles. The fluid part (aka. CYTOSOL) contains water, salts and organic molecules
Organelles (little organs)
are complex cytoplasmic structures that performs one or more specialized functions for the cell
Who invented the Fluid-Mosaic Model?
Singer and Nicolson (1972)
What is the cell membrane made up of?
2. Intergral and Peripheral Protiens (some with carbs-glycocalyx)
The Cell Membrane is semi-permeable and functions to:
1. to separate the inside and outside of a cell
2. to attatch/separate cell to/from cell
3. to protect the cell from ingoing and outgoing material
4. Provide a largesurface area for chemical reactions
5. And to contain identification markers by the glycocalyx
Carbohydrates attached to proteins and lipids (glycoproteins and glycolipids
The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from higher H20 concentration to a lower H20 concentraition
Osmotic Pressure is:
the pressure that's needed to stop he movement of water across the membrane
Simple Diffusion is:
The movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration (only a few compounds can do this)
Facilitated Diffusion is:
when a solute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane
What are three principles of Osmosis?
1. Isotonic Solution-No net Movement of water
2. Hypotonic Solution-Water moves into the cell
3. Hypertonic Solution-Water moves out of the cell
What happens in an Hypertonic Solution?
The cytoplasm shrinks (plasmolysis)
What is Osmotic lysis?
In a Hypotonic solution, if the cell wall is weak or damaged, the cell bursts
Requires atransporter protein and ATP
2 forms of Endocytosis are:
1. Phagocytosis: Pseudopods extend and enulf particles
2. Pinocytosis: Membrane folds inward, bringing in fluid and dissolved substances
What is Exocytosis?
It is the opposite of Endocytosis where large particles are ejected from the cell
Where do the chemical reactions needed for life take place?
In the Cytoplasm
Cytoplasmic Streaming is:
The movement of cytoplasm throughout the cells
Where is the site of protein synthesis (Translation)?
On the Ribosome
Ribosomes in a Eukaryote are:
1. Membrane-bound: attatched to the ER
2. Free floating: In cytoplasm
and larger than Prokaryotic cells @ 80S
Ribosomes in a Prokaryote are:
chloroplasts and mitochondria
and smaller than Eukaryotic Ribosomes @ 70S
Plants, Algae (protists), and Fungi are:
Eukaryotes with cell walls made up of polysaccharide carbohydrates (cellulose, chitin, glucan, and mannan)
Animal Cells are:
Eukaryotes but DO NOT have cell walls
What is Glycocalyx?
These are carbohydrates that extend from the Animal Plasma Membrane.
They Bond to Lipids and Proteins in the membrane
They are used to strengthen the cell membrane, and for cell to cell recognition as well as cell to cell adhesion
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