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ARE 4.0 Programming, Planning & Practice
From the Ballast ARE Review Manual
Terms in this set (30)
After the great fire of 1666, who's plan to rebuild London reflected Renaissance approaches to city planning?
Christopher Wren's plan. He proposed main avenues linking major religious and commercial facilities superimposed on a gridiron plan for other streets.
Who's plan for Paris in 1853 created straight, arterial boulevards connecting principal historic buildings, monuments and open squares to create vistas?
Describe medieval city form (pre-gunpowder)
- began at the crossroads of two main streets
- organized around the church and the market
- irregular layout
- informal rings of streets surrounding the center
- streets from the church to the city wall
Describe medieval city form (post-gunpowder)
- "Star-shaped" city
- regularly spaced bastions at points around the wall to defend the city
- Streets radiated from the center to easily move troops and materials
When did city planning take on greater importance? What changed?
During the Renaissance
- City plans combined symmetrical order with radial layout of streets focused on points of interest
- Aesthetics gained importance
Who wrote the book, "City Planning According to Artistic Principles?" What year? What did it propose?
Camillo Sitte, 1889
- In contrast to the use of straight boulevards (Haussman's ideas)
- Curving and irregular streets
- Variety of views, more interesting
- using T-intersections to control traffic conflicts
- "Turbine Square" = creating civic spaces around a pinwheel arrangement of streets
What brought about a fundamental change in the design of cities in the 18th and 19th centuries?
The Industrial Revolution
- Work force needed to be close to factories and transportation
- cities became overcrowded, filthy, devoid of open space, no recreational activities
Who published the "Garden City" concept? What year? What was it?
Ebenezer Howard, 1898
- response to the ills of the Industrial Revolution
- combine the best of city and country living
- civic buildings in a park at center of the city
- housing and shops surrounding the core
- park and Grand Avenue between housing and industrial
- industrial facilities in the outermost ring
- agricultural belt surrounds it all
Who's city plan, the "Cite Industrielle," was one of the first to emphasize the idea of Zoning? In what year?
Tony Garnier, 1917
- in response to the Industrial Revolution
- separate zones for residential, public, and agricultural use
- linked by separated circulation paths for vehicles and pedestrians
- long, narrow lots with open space between
- VITAL TO FUTURE CITY PLANNING
What is the "Gridiron street system?" What American city is typical of this?
Philadelphia, begun in 1682
- regularly planned public open spaces
- uniform spacing
- setback of buildings
- used a grid system
What early American city broke with the grid system? How? Who designed it?
Washington, D.C., designed by Charles L'Enfant
- based on Renaissance and Baroque planning concepts of diagonal and radial streets superimposed on a rectangular grid
- created coherent transportation system based on vistas terminating with a building or monument
Who was one of the preeminent leaders in Landscape and park design in the 1850's? What did he design?
Frederick Law Olmstead, designed New York's Central Park
What movement was started in 1893 at the Columbian Exhibition in Chicago?
The "City Beautiful" movement. It revived interest in urban planning.
What were some results from the Columbian Exhibition?
- Layouts that included civic centers organized around formal partks
- a proliferation of classical public buildings
- broad, tree-lined parkways and streets
Who proposed "Broadacre City?" What was it?
Frank Lloyd Wright, 1920's
- every home situated on at least 1 acre of land
What did LeCorbusier's city plan propose?
office and housing towers surrounded by large green spaces
What is the "New Town" concept of town planning?
idea that entirely new communities can be built away from the crowding and ugliness of existing cities.
- autonomous centers including housing, shopping and business
- surrounded by a greenbelt
- originally limited to 30,000 people
What was the problem with the "New Town" concept?
they lacked significant employment centers and depended on nearby cities for jobs
What is the "New Urbanism" philosophy of planning?
- development of neighborhoods intended for mixed use
- connection of neighborhoods and towns to a regional patterns of pedestrian, bicycle, and public transit systems
- reduced dependence on the automobile
- encouraged individual buildings to be integrated with their surroundings
- street as a place for the pedestrian
- provide for a clear sense of location and time
- supports preservation or reuse of historic structures
What town is an example of "New Urbanism?"
What are the 2 scales of urban development?
1. the city or metropolitan region (large scale)
2. community and neighborhood scale (small scale)
Explain the "expanding grid" pattern of urban development.
- city is formed at the junction of two roads
- growth follows the grid pattern until a natural feature, limiting population, or economics stop it
- characteristic of smaller cities
Explain the "star" pattern of urban development.
- revolves around the urban core
- development follows radiating spokes of main highways or mass transit routes
- higher density forms around the spokes, lower density in between
Explain the "field" patter of urban development. Example?
- no central focus or organizational scheme
- development takes place in an amorphous network of highway and natural features.
- LOS ANGELES
Explain the "satellite" pattern of urban development. Example?
- central urban core with other major cores surrounding it
- cores linked with major highways
- outer cores connected with a BELTWAY
- possible to travel from center to center without going through the core
Explain the "megalopolis" pattern of urban development
- 2 or more urban centers near each other grow together as the space between is developed
zoning primarily regulates what 5 things?
1. the uses allowed on a parcel of land depending on the zoning district
2. the area of the land that may be covered with buildings
3. the bulk of the structures
4. the distances the buildings must be set back from the property lines
5. parking and loading space requirements
What is an easement?
the right of one party to use a portion of the land of another party in a particular way.
What are 6 types of easements?
1. utility easement
2. access easement
3. support easement
4. joint use easement
5. scenic easement
6. conservation easement
What is a "right-of-way?"
the legal right of one party or the pubic to traverse land belonging to another.
i.e. the public land used for streets and sidewalks.
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