154 terms

Combo with "Guide to TCP/IP Key Terms, Chapter 1" and 1 other

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4.2BSD
The version of the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) of UNIX that was the firs to include a TCP/IP implementation.
Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)
A formal document policy that dictates what kinds of online behavior or system use are acceptable to the overall user community.
addressing
A method of assigning a unique symbolic name or numerical identifier to an individual network interface on a network segment to make every such interface uniquely identifiable (and addressable)
Advance Research Project Agency (ARPA)
An agency within the U.S. Department of Defense that funded forward-thinking research in computing technology.
alarm
Notification of events or errors on the network.
anycast packet
An IPv6 multicast method that permits multiple recipients to be designated for a single message, usually for a single cable segment or broadcast domain.
Application layer
The uppermost layer of the ISO/OSI network reference model (and the TCP/IP model) where the interface between the protocol suite and actual applications resides.
application process
A system process that represents a specific type of network application or service.
ARPANET
An experimental network, funded by ARPA, designed to test the feasibility of a platform-neutral, long-distance, robust, and reliable internetwork that provided the foundation for what we know today as the Internet.
Best Current Practice (BCP)
A specific type of Internet RFC document that outlines the best way to design, implement, and maintain TCP/IP-based networks.
broadcast
A specific type of network transmission (and address) meant to be noticed and read by all recipients on any cable segment where the transmission appears; a way of reaching all addresses on any network.
broadcast packet
A type of network transmission intended for delivery to all devices on the network. The Ethernet broadcast address is 0xFF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF for IPv6 and 255.255.255.255 for IPv4.
cable segment
Any single collection of network media and attached devices that fits on a single piece of network cable or within a singe network device, such as a hub or, in a virtual equivalent, a local area network emulation environment on a switch.
capture filter
A method used to identify specific packets that should be captured into a trace buffer based on some packet characteristic, such as source or destination address.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
A formal name for Ethernets contention management approach. CSMA means "listen before attempting to send" (to make sure no later message tramples on an earlier one) and "listen while sending" (to make sure messages sent at roughly the same time don't collide with one another).
Centre Europeen de Researche Nucleaire (CERN)
The European Organization for Nuclear Research, where Tim Berners-Lee invented protocols and services for the World Wide Web between 1989 and 1991.
checkpoint
A point in time at which all system state and information is captured and saved so that, after a subsequent failure in systems and communications, operations can resume at that point in time, with no further loss of data or information.
checksum
A special mathematical value that represents the contents of a message so precisely that any change in the contents will cause a change in the c_______-calculated before and after network transmission of data and then compared. If transmitted and calculated c________ agree, the assumption is that the data arrived unaltered.
Commercial Internet Exchange (CIX)
An early consortium of commercial Internet users that pioneered the extension of Internet use to e-commerce and business communications.
congestion control
A TCP mechanism, also available from other protocols, that permits network hosts to exchange information about their ability to handle traffic volumes and thereby causes senders to decrease or increase the frequency and size of their upcoming communications.
connectionless
A networking protocol that does not require network senders and receivers to exchange information about their availability or ability to communicate; also known as "best-effort delivery."
connection-oriented
A type of networking protocol that relies on explicit communications and negotiations between sender and receiver to manage delivery of data between the two parties.
daemon
Taken from James Clark Maxwell's famous physics idea, a d_____ is a computer process whose job is to "listen" in on connection attempts for one or more specific network services and hand off all valid attempts to temporary connections known as sockets.
data frame
The basic PDU at the Data Link layer, which represents what is transmitted or received as a pattern of bits on a network interface.
datagram
The basic protocol data unit at the TCP/IP Network Access layer. Used by connectionless protocols at the transport layer, a d_______ simply adds a header to the PDU, supplied from whichever Application layer protocol or service uses a connectionless protocol, such as UDP; hence, UDP is also known as a d_______ service.
Data Link Layer
Layer 2 of the ISO/OSI network reference model. The D___ L___ l____ is responsible for enabling reliable transmission of data through the Physical layer at the sending end and for checking such reliability upon reception at the receiving end.
data segment
The basic PDU for TCP at the Transport layer.
decode
The interpreted value of a PDU, or a field within a PDU, performed by a protocol analyzer or similar software package.
decoding
The process of interpreting the fields and contents of a packet and presenting the packet in a readable format.
Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA)
The DoD agency that took over operation of the Internet when ARPA surrendered its control in 1983.
demultiplexing
The process of breaking up a single stream of incoming packets on a computer and directing its components to the various active TCP/IP processes based on socket addresses in the TCP or UDP headers.
destination port number
A port address for incoming TCP/IP communication that identifies a target application or service process.
display filters
Filters that are applied to the packets that reside in a trace buffer, for the purpose of viewing only the packets of interest.
divide and conquer
A computer design approach that consists of decomposing a big, complex problem into a series of smaller, less complex, and interrelated problems, each of which can be solved more or less independently of others.
domain
The name of a first-level entry in the d_____ name heirarchy, such as cengage.com or whitehouse.gov.
Draft Standard
A Standard RFC that has gone through the draft process, been approved, and for which two reference implementations must be shown to work together before it can move on the the Internet Standard status.
dynamically assigned port address
A temporary TCP or UDP port number allocated to permit a client and server to exchange data with each other only as long as their connection remains active.
encapsulation
Enclosure of data from an upper-layer protocol between a header and a trailer (trailer is optional) for the current layer to identify sender and receiver and, possibly, include data integrity check information.
Ethernet
A network access protocol based on carrier sense, multiple access, and collision detection.
Ethernet collision fragments
The garbled traffic on a network produced when two packets transmitted at about the same time collide, resulting in a hodgepodge of signals.
fragmentation
The process of dividing a packet into multiple smaller packets to cross a link that supports an MTU than the link where the packet originated.
frame
The basic Data Link layer PDU for the ISO/OSI model.
header
The portion of a PDU that precedes the actual content for the PDU and usually identifies sender and receiver, protocols in use, and other information necessary to establish context for senders and receivers.
Historic Standard
An Internet RFC that was superseded by a newer, more current version.
host
TCP/IP terminology for any computer with one or more valid TCP/IP addresses (hence reachable on a TCP/IP network). A h___ also can be a computer that offers TCP/IP services to clients.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
The TCP/IP Application layer protocol and service that supports access to the World Wide Web.
IEEE 802
A project undertaken by the IEEE in 1980 that covers Physical and Data Link layers for networking technologies in general (802.1 and 802.2), plus specific networking technologies, such as Ethernet (802.3)
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
An international organization that sets standards for electrical and electronic equipment, including network interfaces and communications technologies.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
An international standards organization based in Geneva, Switzerland, that sets standards for information technology and networking equipment, protocols, and communications technologies.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
The organization within the Internet Society responsible for proper assignment of all domain names andnumeric IP addresses for the global internet. This organization works with private companies called name registrars to manage domain names and with ISP's to manage assignment of numeric IP addresses.
Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
the organization within the Internet Society that governs the actions of both the IETF and the IRTF andhas final approval authority for Internet Standards.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The organization within the Internet Society that's responsible for all currently used Internet Standards, protocols, and services as well as for managing the development and maintenance of Internet Requests for Comments (RFC's).
Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC)
A quasi-governmental agency that was responsible for assigned names and numbers on the Internet (this responsibility now falls on ICANN).
Internet Protocol (IP)
The primary Network layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite. This protocol manages routing and delivery for traffic on TCP/IP-based networks.
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
The original version of IP that's still in widespread public use, although a newer version is currently fully specified and moving into global deployment and use.
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
The latest version of IP that's moving into global deployment and use (The older version remains the predominant TCP/IP version in use but will slowly be supplanted by this version).
Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)
The forward-looking research and development arm of the Internet Society. This organization reports to the IAB for direction and governance.
Internet Society (ISOC)
The parent organization under which the rest ofthe Internet governing bodies fall. This organization is a user-oriented, public-access organization that solicits end-user participation and input to help set future Internet policy and direction.
Internet Standard
An RFC document that specifies the rules, structure, and behavior of a current Internet protocol or service. Also called a Standard RFC.
internetwork
Literally, the "network of networks," and internetwork is better understood as a collection of multiple interconnected physical networks that together behave as a single logical network (of which the Internet is the prime example).
ISO/OSI network reference model
The official name for the seven-layer network reference model used to describe how networks operate and behave.
layer
A single component or facet in a networking model that handles one particular aspect of network access or communications.
local area network (LAN)
A single network cable segment, subnet, or logical network community that respresents a collection of machines that can communicate with one another more or less directly (using MAC addresses).
maximum transmission unit (MTU)
The biggest chunk of data that can be transferred across any particular type of network medium - for example, 1518 bytes is the MTU for conventional Ethernet.
media flow control
The management of data transmission rates between two devices across a local network medium that guarantees the receiver can accept and process input before it arrives from the sender.
multicast packet
A packet sent to groups of devices, often multiple routers.
multiplexing
The process whereby multiple individual data streams from Application layer processses are joined together for transmission by a specific TCP/IP transport protocol through the IP protocol.
National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA)
An arm of the Unniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where supercomputer research is undertaken adn where the first graphical Web browser, Mosaic, was developed and released in 1993.
network analysis
another term for protocol analysis
National Science Foundation (NSF)
A u.S. Government agency charged with the oversight and support for government-funded scientific research and development.
Network File System (NFS)
A TCP/IP-based, network-distributed file system that permits users to treat files and directories on machines elsewhere on a network as an extension of their local desktop file system.
Network interface controller (NIC)
A hardware device used to permit a computer to attach to and communicate with a local area network.
network services
A TCP/IP term for a protocol/service combination that operates at the Application layer in the TCP/IP network model.
anycast address
A type of address specified in IPv6 that represents a group of interfaces, any one of which (and usually the first available of which) can accept a transmission.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that belongs in the Network layer of the OSI model. It obtains the MAC (physical) address of a host, or node, and then creates a local database that maps the MAC address to the host's IP (logical) address.
BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol)
An Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite that uses a central list of IP addresses and their associated devices' MAC addresses to assign IP addresses to clients dynamically. It was the precursor to DHCP.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
An Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite that manages the dynamic distribution of IP addresses on a network.
DNS (Domain Name System or Domain Name Service)
A hierarchical way of tracking domain names and their addresses, devised in the mid-1980s. It does not rely on one file or even one server, but rather is distributed over several key computers across the Internet to prevent catastrophic failure if one or a few computers go down. It is a TCP/IP service that belongs to the Application layer of the OSI model.
domain
A group of computers that belong to the same organization and have part of their IP addresses in common.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
An Application layer protocol used to send and receive files via TCP/IP.
hop
A term used to describe each trip a unit of data takes from one connectivity device to another. Typically, it is used in the context of router-to-router communications.
host file
A text file that associates TCP/IP host names with IP addresses.
host name
A symbolic name that describes a TCP/IP device.
hosts
The name of the host file used on UNIX, Linux, and Windows systems.
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that notifies the sender that something has gone wrong in the transmission process and that packets were not delivered.
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol or Internet Group Multicast Protocol)
A TCP/IP protocol used to manage multicast transmissions. Routers use it to determine which nodes belong to a multicast group, and nodes use it to join or leave a multicast group.
IP datagram
The IP portion of a TCP/IP frame that acts as an envelope for data, holding information necessary for routers to transfer data between subnets.
IPv4 (IP version 4)
The current standard for IP addressing that specifies 32-bit addresses composed of four octets.
IPv6 (IP version 6)
it uses a newer, more efficient header in its packets and allows for 128-bit source and destination IP addresses.
multicasting
A means of transmission in which one device sends data to a specific group of devices (not necessarily the entire network segment) in a point-to-multipoint fashion.
network ID
The portion of an IP address common to all nodes on the same network or subnet.
NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol or Network News Transport Protocol)
An Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite that facilitates the exchange of newsgroup messages, or articles, between multiple servers and users.
NTP (Network Time Protocol)
A simple Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite used to synchronize the clocks of computers on a network. It depends on UDP for Transport layer services.
ping
To send an echo request signal from one node on a TCP/IP-based network to another
PING (Packet Internet Groper)
A TCP/IP troubleshooting utility that can verify that TCP/IP is installed, bound to the NIC, configured correctly, and communicating with the network.
port number
The address on a host where an application makes itself available to incoming data.
RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that belongs in the Network layer of the OSI model. It relies on a its table to associate the IP (logical) address of a node with its MAC (physical) address.
Registered Ports
The TCP/IP ports in the range of 1024 to 49,151. These ports are accessible to network users and processes that do not have special administrative privileges. Default assignments of these ports must be registered with IANA.
routable
The protocols that can span more than one LAN because they carry Network layer and addressing information that can be interpreted by a router.
socket
A logical address assigned to a specific process running on a computer.
static ARP table entry
A record in an ARP table that someone has manually entered using the ARP utility.
subnet
A part of a network in which all nodes shares a network addressing component and a fixed amount of bandwidth.
subnetting
The process of subdividing a single class of network into multiple, smaller networks.
switch
The letters or words added to a command that allow you to customize a utility's output. They are usually preceded by a hyphen or forward slash character.
Telnet
A terminal emulation protocol used to log on to remote hosts using the TCP/IP protocol. It resides in the Application layer of the OSI model.
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)
A TCP/IP Application layer protocol that enables file transfers between computers. Unlike FTP, it relies on UDP at the Transport layer and does not require a user to log on to the remote host.
TTL (Time to Live)
A number that indicates the maximum time that a datagram or packet can remain on the network before it is discarded.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that sits in the Transport layer of the OSI model. It is a connectionless transport service.
Well Known Ports
The TCP/IP port numbers 0 to 1023
ANDing
A logical process of combining bits. A bit with a value of 1 plus another bit with a value of 1 results in a 1. A bit with a value of 0 plus any other bit results in a 0.
CIDR (Classless Interdomain Routing)
An IP addressing and subnetting method in which network and host information is manipulated without adhering to the limitations imposed by traditional network class distinctions.
classful addressing
An IP addressing convention that adheres to network class distinctions, in which the first 8 bits of a Class | A address, the first 16 bits of a Class B address, and the first 24 bits of a Class C address are used for network information.
core gateway
A gateway that operates on the Internet backbone.
default gateway
The gateway that first interprets a device's outbound requests, and then interprets its inbound requests to and from other subnets.
extended network prefix
The combination of an IP address's network ID and subnet information.
host
A TCP/IP utility that at its simplest returns either the IP address of a host if its host name is specified or its host name if its IP address is specified.
hostname
A TCP/IP utility used to show or modify a client's host name.
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)
A mail retrieval protocol that improves on the shortcomings of POP. It allows users to store messages on the mail server, rather than always having to download them to the local machine.
NetBIOS
A protocol that runs in the Session and Transport layers of the OSI model and associates NetBIOS names with workstations.
PAT (Port Address Translation)
A form of address translation that uses TCP port numbers to distinguish each client's transmission, thus allowing multiple clients to share a limited number of Internet-recognized IP addresses.
POP (Post Office Protocol)
An Application layer protocol used to retrieve messages from a mail server. Messages previously stored on the mail server are downloaded to the client's workstation, and then deleted from the mail server.
private network
A network whose access is restricted to only clients or machines with proper credentials.
public network
A network that any user can access with no restrictions.
route
A utility for viewing or modifying a host's routing table.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
The Application layer TCP/IP subprotocol responsible for moving messages from one e-mail server to another.
supernet
A type of subnet that is created using bits that normally would be reserved for network class information—by moving the subnet boundary to the left.
supernet mask
A 32-bit number that, when combined with a device's IP address, indicates the kind of network to which the device belongs.
APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing)
A service available on computers running the Windows 98, Me, 2000, XP, Vista, Server 2003, or Server 2008 operating system that automatically assigns the computer's network interface an IP address from the range of 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255 if an IP address hasn't been assigned to that interface.
ARP table
A database of records that maps MAC addresses to IP addresses.
TCP/IP Layers
Link Layer
Internet Layer
Transport Layer
Application Layer
Application
Provides applications the ability to access the services of the other layers and defines the protocols that applications use to exchange data.
Transport
Responsible for providing the Application layer with session and datagram communication services
Internet
Addressing, packaging, and routing functions.
Network Interface
responsible for placing TCP/IP packets on the network medium and receiving TCP/IP packets off the network medium.
transport control protocol/internet protocol.
The acronym TCP/IP stands for t_______ c______ p_______/i_______ p_______
network communications
TCP/IP is a protocol system - which means it is a collection of protocols that support n______ c_____________.
network
A n______ is a collection of computers or computer-like devices that can communicate across a common transmission medium.
metal, electrical pulses, phone line, wireless network
Transmission mediums can be an insulated m____ wire that carries e_________ p_____ between computers, but it could also be a p____ l___ or even no line at all, as in the case of a w_______ n______.
communications process, data, transmission medium
Regardless of how computers are connected, the c_____________ p______ requires that d___ from one computer pass across the t___________ m_____ to another computer.
applications, specific, manage
A computer interacts with the world through one or more a__________ that perform s_______ tasks and m_____ the communication process.
network, application, applications
In every case, if your computer is part of a n______, an a__________ on the computer must be capable of communicating with a__________ on other network computers.
network protocol
A n______ p_______ is a system of common rules that help define the complex process of network communication.
Protocols, networking components, hardware, transmission medium, destination
P________ guide the process of sending data from an application on one computer, throught the n_________ c_________ of the operating system, to the network h_______, across the t___________ m_____, and up through the d__________ computer's network hardware and operating system to a receiving application.
network communication process, unit, data, interpret
The protocols of TCP/IP define the n______ c__________ p______ and define how a u___ of d___ should look and what information it should contain so that the receiving computer can i________ the message correctly.
processed, transmitted, received
TCP/IP and it's related protocols form a complete system defining how data should be p________, t__________, and r________ on a TCP/IP network.
protocol suite
A system of related protocols, such as the TCP/IP protocols, is called a p_______ s_____.
software, implementation
The actual formatting and processing of TCP/IP transmission is performed by a s_______ component known as the vendor's i_____________ of TCP/IP.
enables, participate
An example of vendor's implementation is when a TCP/IP component in Microsoft Windows e_______ Windows computers to process TCP/IP-formatted data and thus to p__________ in a TCP/IP network.
standard
A TCP/IP s_______ is a system of rules defining communicatoin on TCP/IP networks.
standards, compatibility, implementations
The purpose of TCP/IP s________ is to ensure the c____________ of all TCP/IP i______________ regardless of version or vendor.
implementation
A TCP/IP i_____________ is a software component that performs the functions that enable a computer to participate in a TXP/IP network.
logical addressing, routing, name resolution, error, flow, application
The TCP/IP protocol suite addresses l______ a_________, r______, n___ r__________, e____ control and f___ control, and a__________ support.
physical address
A network adapter has a unique p_______ a______.
ethernet, Media Access Control
In the case of e_______, the physical address (which is sometimes called a M____ A_____ C______ [MAC] address) is typically assigned to the adapter at the factory. Some contemporary devices provide a means for changing the physical address.