47 terms

Biology: Human Reproduction

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Epididymides
sperm produced by the testes mature within this for about 90 days, which are tightly coiled ducts lying outside the testes
Vas Deferens
after sperm leave an epididymis, they enter this where they may also be stored for a time before ejaculation
to sterilize a man, cut this
Testes
produce sperm and sex hormones
Seminal Vesicles
produce thick fluid to keep sperm alive
lies at base of bladder, each has duct that joins with the vas deferens
Prostate Gland
contributes basic fluid to semen for sperm to swim in
produces majority of semen
donut-shaped gland that surrounds the upper portion of the urethra
Urethra
conducts sperm out of penis
Bulbourethral Glands
pre-ejaculate, basic fluid to counteract acidity of vagina, helps sperm live
pea-sized organs that lie underneath the prostate on either side of the urethra
Penis
organ of sexual intercourse
functions to expel urine and intermission organ
gives big chance that baby has males genes
Semen
at the time of ejaculation, sperm leave the penis in a fluid
Sperm
have three main parts:
-a head
-a middle piece
-a tail
Seminiferous Tubules
are located in the testes
produce sperm in the testes
Interstitial Cells
where the male sex hormones, the androgens, are secreted by the cells
lie between the seminiferous tubules
Testosterone
main sex hormone in males
essential for the normal development and functioning of the organs necessary for sex
Oogenesis
the production of an egg
Oocyte
a female egg, or female gamete
Ovaries
produce oocyte and sex hormones
the female gonads
lie in shallow depressions on each side of the upper pelvic cavity
Uterus
also known as the womb
houses developing fetus
Oviducts
also known as uterine or fallopian tubes
conduct oocyte
location of fertilization
transport early zygote
Cervix
contains opening to uterus
lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina-junction between uterus and vagina
Vagina
receives penis during sexual intercourse
serves as birth canal and as the exit for menstrual flow
very acidic to prevent infections, very few nerve endings
Endometrium
the lining of the uterus
participates in the formation of the placenta
Vulva
the external genital organs of the female, collectively
Ovarian Cycle
a cycle in which an oocyte matures, erupts from the ovaries and then travels down the oviduct to the uterus
Follicular Phase
follicle stimulating hormone secretion beings
follicle maturation occurs
estrogen secretion is prominent
oocyte matures
days 1-13 in ovarian cycle
Ovulation
luteinising hormone spike occurs
oocyte erupts from ovary and enters oviduct
day 14 of ovarian cycle
Luteal Phase
luteinising hormone secretion continues
corpus luteum forms, remains in ovaries secreting estrogen and progesterone-disintegrates if woman is not pregnant by end of cycle
days 15-28 of ovarian cycle
Menstruation
endometrium breaks down
days 1-5 of uterine cycle
Proliferative Phase
endometrium rebuilds
days 6-13 of uterine cycle
Secretory Phase
endometrium thickens and glands are secretory
days 15-28 of uterine cycle
Menopause
the period in a woman's life during which the ovarian and uterine cycles cease
usually occurs between ages 45-55
Contraceptives
medications and devices that reduce the chance of pregnancy
Birth Control Pills
also called oral contraception
often involves taking a combination of estrogen and progesterone on a daily basis which mimics the hormonal situation of pregnancy
Intrauterine Device (IUD)
a small piece of molded plastic that is inserted into the uterus by a physician
Diaphragm
a soft latex cup with a flexible rim that lodges behind the pubic bone and fits over the cervix
Male Condom
a latex sheath that fits over the erect penis
Female Condom
a large polyurethane tube with a flexible ring that cover the external genitals
Contraceptive Implants
utilize synthetic progesterone to prevent ovulation by disrupting the ovarian cycle
Uterine Cycle
the cycle in which the lining of the uterus grows and prepares for an embryo to implant
Scrotum
testes sits here so they can control temperature and keep it low
remember WWI example of this being too hot, but recovered after 90 days
Erectile Tissue
fill with blood to provide erections
Os
bone to support erections in mammals
humans don't have one
Glans Penis
the front of the penis
has lots of nerve fibers-sensing part of penis
foreskin retracts during erection
Viagra
medication that gives extra NO (neurotransmitter) to penis to allow expansion of blood flow in penis
Libido
sexual desire
Sertoli Cells
"nurse" cells, provide nutrients and hormones to grow sperm
Acrosome
digestive enzyme that chews up the membrane of an egg to allow sperm to enter
present in sperm
Glans Clitoris
comes from same cells as penis does
has erectile tissue, can between erect but isn't connected to pelvic bone
nerves for sensing