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OCR mandated that schools must provide "meaningful education" to students of limited English proficiency. Led the way for bilingual education in the United States.
The Lau v. Nichols court case of 1974 refers to the U.S Supreme Court ruling, by unanimous decision, that students who did not understand English could not participate meaningfully in nor benefit from an educational program provided in English. The court found that by merely making available the same access to facilities, textbooks, teachers, curriculum, and instruction as provided to English dominant students, the school district was not providing equality of educational opportunity for students who do not understand English when instruction was presented only in English and no other mediation was provided to those students.

Another very important decision of this ruling which deserves special notice is that the Supreme Court recognized the authority of the Office for Civil Rights (U.S. Department of Education) to establish regulations for compliance with the 1964 Civil Rights Act which declares that ". . . No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color or national origin. . . be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance." The Office for Civil Rights then issued the Lau remedies, a set of guidelines to force school districts to comply with the court ruling to offer meaningful education to English language learners.
In the Lau v. Nichols lawsuit brought by Chinese students against the San Francisco Independent School District in 1970, the Supreme Court outlawed English mainstreaming (often called Submersion) programs for language minority children. The U.S Supreme Court ruled that students who did not understand English could not participate meaningfully in nor benefit from an educational program provided in English. Thus, these students were being denied equal treatment by the schools, which was a violation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Although the right for equal opportunity to language minorities was asserted, the means of achieving that right was not declared. It did not establish bilingual programs nationwide.
provided funding for programs to address the needs of ELLs.

The effectiveness of language programs in bilingual education has been much debated since the passage of the 1968 Bilingual Education Act. The key issue of debate has been whether bilingual programs should facilitate transition to English or ensuring primary-language maintenance. Those that favor language programs that facilitate transition to English have claimed that promoting languages other than English would result in national disunity, inhibit children's social mobility, and work against the rise of English as a world language. On the other hand, supporters of bilingual education are in favor of primary-language maintenance. They propose that language is central to the intellectual and emotional growth of children. Rather than permitting children to languish in classrooms while developing their English, proponents claim that a more powerful long-term strategy consists of parallel development of intellectual and academic skills in the native language and the learning of English as a second language. Proponents also argue that immigrants and other non-English-speaking students have valuable resources to offer this multicultural nation.
The Bilingual Education Act of 1968 is noted as the first official federal recognition of the needs of students with limited English speaking ability, however the guidelines of the bill were not specific and participation by school districts were voluntary. Only after the ruling in Lau v. Nichols (1974) was the Act amended
The early-exit transitional bilingual model is one of the most commonly used in Texas preK−5. Usually in kindergarten, 75% of instruction is in Spanish (L1), and 25% is in English (L2). By fifth grade, 20% of instruction is in Spanish (L1), and 80% is in English (L2). Therefore the program entails instruction in L1 and language development in L2 by the same bilingual teacher in the early grades, usually. In the upper-elementary grades, besides the bilingual teacher, an ESL specialist promotes language development (L2), usually.

In the early-exit transitional bilingual model, the student's primary language (L1) is used as a vehicle to develop literacy skills and aquire academic knowledge. The use of the primary language is gradually decreased while the use of English for instruction is simultaneously increased. The ultimate goal of transitional bilingual programs is to fully integrate the student into an all-English instructional setting.
-2-3 years
- subtractive
-from two languages to one

The main goal of the early-exit bilingual education program is to mainstream students as quickly as possible. This program promotes English language development and academic learning. There is some initial instruction in the child's primary language (thirty to sixty minutes per day), and all other instruction in English, with the child's primary language used only as a support, for clarification. However, instruction in the primary language is phased out so that by grade three, traditionally, virtually all instruction is in English.

Language-minority students in the early-exit transitional program are segregated from the mainstream for sometime. The program maintains and develops skills in Spanish while introducing, maintaining, and developing skills in English. This model does not provide opportunities for language-minority students to interact with fluent English speakers in a classroom setting, allowing them to learn together using both languages and thus learn about each other's cultures.
AKA Structured English Immersion
shifts from English "language-only" to content-based ESL
attempts to make academic instruction in English more understandable to ELLS while promoting English language development
SIOP model/CALLA model
It is a type of ESL program in which English is the primary language of instruction and is tailored to the developmental linguistic needs of English language learners to ensure achievement of content knowledge. The program allows for the smallest amount of native-language instruction necessary to supplement an English-only curriculum. However, Mario still needs native language support for academic concepts so he will not fall behind in subject matter studies.
Structured English Immersion (SEI), also referred to as Sheltered English Immersion, is a type of ESL program in which English is the primary language of instruction and is tailored to the developmental linguistic needs of English language learners to ensure achievement of content knowledge. Students in these classes are "sheltered" in that they do not compete academically with native English speakers since the class includes only English language learners. As opposed to the regular classroom, English fluency is not assumed in the sheltered English classroom. Teachers use physical activities, visual aids, and the environment to teach important new words for concept development in mathematics, science, history, home economics, and other subjects.

The program allows for the smallest amount of native-language instruction necessary to supplement an English-only curriculum. But the curriculum and presentation are designed for students who are learning the language. To ensure comprehension teachers use techniques to simplify and contextualize instruction - students learn content and language concurrently. The English language is the main content of SEI instruction. Academic content plays a supporting, but subordinate, role.

This model does not provide opportunities for language-minority students to interact with fluent English speakers. SEI is a less successful model for ELLs' long-term academic achievement than those with more significant L1 support. This program would not benefit English-native speakers.

Sheltered instruction focuses on grade-level curricula, uses English as the medium of instruction, and employs many techniques (e.g., contextual clues, scaffolding, cooperative learning, advance organizers) to help second language students access the core curriculum.
Language Proficiency Assessment Committee
Made up of at least one administrator, teachers, and a parent representative.
-regulates admission, treatment, dismissal, and follow up services to students in the bilingual or special language program.

The Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) was created by the Texas Bilingual Education Act to implement the state's plan for educating Limited English Proficient students. LPAC responsibilities follow:

1. Identification (Home Language Survey)
2. Assessment and documentation review ( to determine if student is LEP)
3. Placement (once it is recommended then parental permission must be obtained)
4. Methods of instruction/Instructional levels (these decisions impact instruction students will receive)
5. Coordination (and communication among all teachers to support students placed in their programs)
6. Parental notification/Consent
7. Annual review (linguistic and academic progress)

A representative from the language proficiency assessment committee (LPAC) is attending Roberto's annual ARD. The role of the LPAC representative is to assist with decisions regarding the selection of assessments and appropriate accommodations for LEP students who receive special education services.

The school's bilingual/ESL program does not need parental permission for testing language proficiency of the student. Only at the placement stage of the screening is the LPAC required to notify the parent about classification and obtain permission in writing for program entry. After the LPAC recommends placement for the student, which can take up to four weeks of initial enrollment, then written parental permission in both English and the native language must be obtained.
Provides the most extensive instruction in L1
The goal of maintenance bilingual programs is to promote bilingualism and biliteracy; rather than an assimilationist goal, this model promotes pluralism. Languages other than English are seen as resources. Because it promotes the development of two languages, the outcome is additive bilingualism, which is associated with positive cognitive benefits (Cummins, 1981).
In maintenance programs, the learners are transitioned into English content classes, and are given support in their first language. They also receive language arts in their native language, enabling them to become literate in that language, and they continue to receive content area classes in their first language as well, so that they become literate in both languages. Literacy skills developed more fully in the students' primary language transfer easily and contribute to stronger English literacy skills. Cognitive skills transfer from one language to another, and students literate in their first language will apply these skills and other academic proficiencies to the second language.

In a nutshell, cognitive skills such as analysis, interpretation, evaluation, inference, self-regulation, and explanation enable students to integrate new information as they are taught it. Metacognitive strategies refer to the planning, prioritizing, thinking about the learning process as it is taking place, the monitoring of one's production or comprehension. Affective strategies are concerned with the learner's emotional requirements such as confidence, while social strategies lead to increased interaction with the target language. Students who receive literacy instruction with explicit teaching of metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective learning strategies in the primary language become more efficient and effective second language learners.
The additive bilingual education program model develops and maintains students' primary language while simultaneously adding a second language. In additive bilingual education programs there is no loss to students' primary language or culture. This model is important because language minority groups feel highly rejected if their cultural identity (identification of the individual with a social and cultural group) is not valued in the dominant culture. Sometimes minority group members feel devalued and do not seem to fit into the dominant culture. This phenomenon affects language minority students in schools. In bilingual programs that emphasize biculturalism both the native and target cultures should be taught. This approach affords students the benefit of gaining a sense of self-confidence and self-esteem related to their cultural identity. Bicultural education should be an enriching experience for all students, not a limiting or compensatory one; it should broaden the range of choice for cultural identity which students may one day make, but it should not make such choices for them, nor force unnecessary or premature decisions.
The strength of the program is that besides the continued cognitive development students experience in L1, which enhances their learning and reinforces cognitive development in L2, the cultural reinforcement characteristic of the program affords students the benefit of gaining a sense of self-confidence and self-esteem related to their cultural identity. A
dditive bilingualism refers to the process by which students develop both fluency and proficiency in a second language while continuing to develop proficiency in their first. The process involves adding a second language, not replacing the first language with the second language (which is known as subtractive bilingualism).