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Arts and Humanities
TExES 164 Bilingual Supplemental
I've added some definitions and notes from a practice test I purchased
Terms in this set (133)
Brown v Board of Education of Topeka
desegregation case for African Americans. Separate is not equal
Hernandez v. Texas
extexted equal protection clause of 14th ammendment to Mexican Americans and other minority groups. Mexican Americans are a different racial group than whites.
Diana v. board of education
Spanish speaking students should be tested in their native language for SPED placement
Lau v. Nichols
OCR mandated that schools must provide "meaningful education" to students of limited English proficiency. Led the way for bilingual education in the United States.
The Lau v. Nichols court case of 1974 refers to the U.S Supreme Court ruling, by unanimous decision, that students who did not understand English could not participate meaningfully in nor benefit from an educational program provided in English. The court found that by merely making available the same access to facilities, textbooks, teachers, curriculum, and instruction as provided to English dominant students, the school district was not providing equality of educational opportunity for students who do not understand English when instruction was presented only in English and no other mediation was provided to those students.
Another very important decision of this ruling which deserves special notice is that the Supreme Court recognized the authority of the Office for Civil Rights (U.S. Department of Education) to establish regulations for compliance with the 1964 Civil Rights Act which declares that ". . . No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color or national origin. . . be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance." The Office for Civil Rights then issued the Lau remedies, a set of guidelines to force school districts to comply with the court ruling to offer meaningful education to English language learners.
In the Lau v. Nichols lawsuit brought by Chinese students against the San Francisco Independent School District in 1970, the Supreme Court outlawed English mainstreaming (often called Submersion) programs for language minority children. The U.S Supreme Court ruled that students who did not understand English could not participate meaningfully in nor benefit from an educational program provided in English. Thus, these students were being denied equal treatment by the schools, which was a violation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Although the right for equal opportunity to language minorities was asserted, the means of achieving that right was not declared. It did not establish bilingual programs nationwide.
Rios vs. Reed court case of 1978
program quality. The court upheld the importance of teaching English to students who also recognized the need to provide meaningful education while accomplishing the language goal. It resulted in the call for the use of L1 instruction for the content areas while developing English proficiency.
The plaintiffs charged their school district's transitional bilingual program did not meet their educational needs. The court wrote: "while the district's goal of teaching Hispanic children the English language is certainly proper, it cannot be allowed to compromise a student's right to meaningful education before proficiency in English is obtained." The ruling clearly called for the use of L1 instruction for the content areas while developing English proficiency. The correct answer is C
Castaneda vs. Pickard
mandated a three step process to develop quality bilingual education programs
- based on sound research
- adequate resources
- opportunities for students to have access to full curriculum
The Castañeda v. Pickard court case of 1981 refers to the Fifth Court of Appeals decision that implementation of bilingual education programs must be based on sound research, with adequate resources and opportunities for students to have access to the full curriculum.
Plyler v. Doe
guarantees the rights of undocumented immigrants to free public education.
In 1982 the Supreme Court ruled in Plyler v. Doe that public schools were prohibited from denying children of undocumented workers access to a public education. The Court stated that undocumented children have the same right to a free public education as U.S. citizens and permanent residents. Undocumented immigrant students are obligated, as are all other students, to attend school until they reach the age mandated by state law.
Supreme Court of the United States struck down a state statute denying funding for education to illegal aliens and simultaneously struck down a municipal school district's attempt to charge illegal immigrants an annual $1,000 tuition fee for each illegal alien student to compensate for the lost state funding. The ruling resulted in the guarantee of the rights of undocumented immigrants to free public education.
Title 6 of CRA of 1964
prohibits discrimination based on race, color, or national orgin in any federally funded program
Bilingual Education Act 1968
provided funding for programs to address the needs of ELLs.
The effectiveness of language programs in bilingual education has been much debated since the passage of the 1968 Bilingual Education Act. The key issue of debate has been whether bilingual programs should facilitate transition to English or ensuring primary-language maintenance. Those that favor language programs that facilitate transition to English have claimed that promoting languages other than English would result in national disunity, inhibit children's social mobility, and work against the rise of English as a world language. On the other hand, supporters of bilingual education are in favor of primary-language maintenance. They propose that language is central to the intellectual and emotional growth of children. Rather than permitting children to languish in classrooms while developing their English, proponents claim that a more powerful long-term strategy consists of parallel development of intellectual and academic skills in the native language and the learning of English as a second language. Proponents also argue that immigrants and other non-English-speaking students have valuable resources to offer this multicultural nation.
The Bilingual Education Act of 1968 is noted as the first official federal recognition of the needs of students with limited English speaking ability, however the guidelines of the bill were not specific and participation by school districts were voluntary. Only after the ruling in Lau v. Nichols (1974) was the Act amended
Components of a bilingual program
Affective: motivation, self-confidence, and positive identity in both L1 and L2
Cognitive: instruction in L1 and L2 is used to develop and master ELLs TEKS and higher order thinking skills (content).
Linguistic: instruction in L1 and L2 is used to develop and master ELLs skills in comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing
Early Exit Transitional Bilingual Program
The early-exit transitional bilingual model is one of the most commonly used in Texas preK−5. Usually in kindergarten, 75% of instruction is in Spanish (L1), and 25% is in English (L2). By fifth grade, 20% of instruction is in Spanish (L1), and 80% is in English (L2). Therefore the program entails instruction in L1 and language development in L2 by the same bilingual teacher in the early grades, usually. In the upper-elementary grades, besides the bilingual teacher, an ESL specialist promotes language development (L2), usually.
In the early-exit transitional bilingual model, the student's primary language (L1) is used as a vehicle to develop literacy skills and aquire academic knowledge. The use of the primary language is gradually decreased while the use of English for instruction is simultaneously increased. The ultimate goal of transitional bilingual programs is to fully integrate the student into an all-English instructional setting.
-from two languages to one
The main goal of the early-exit bilingual education program is to mainstream students as quickly as possible. This program promotes English language development and academic learning. There is some initial instruction in the child's primary language (thirty to sixty minutes per day), and all other instruction in English, with the child's primary language used only as a support, for clarification. However, instruction in the primary language is phased out so that by grade three, traditionally, virtually all instruction is in English.
Language-minority students in the early-exit transitional program are segregated from the mainstream for sometime. The program maintains and develops skills in Spanish while introducing, maintaining, and developing skills in English. This model does not provide opportunities for language-minority students to interact with fluent English speakers in a classroom setting, allowing them to learn together using both languages and thus learn about each other's cultures.
Late- Exit bilingual education
In Late Exit bilingual, students remain in the bilingual program for six to seven years. Late exit programs differ from early exit programs in that the program allows more time to develop the student's proficiency in L1. With a strong literacy background, the student can transfer literacy skills from L1 to L2.
Literacy skills developed more fully in the students' primary language transfers easily and contribute to stronger English literacy skills. Cognitive skills (the ability to analyze, evaluate, infer, self-regulate and explain) transfer from one language to another, and students literate in their first language will apply these skills and other academic proficiencies to the second language. This answer choice best explains the success achieved by students in the late-exit programs as compared to the structured immersion, and early-exit bilingual approaches.
Developmental Bilingual Educatoin
2 languages to 2 languages
Sheltered English Instruction (SEI)
AKA Structured English Immersion
shifts from English "language-only" to content-based ESL
attempts to make academic instruction in English more understandable to ELLS while promoting English language development
SIOP model/CALLA model
It is a type of ESL program in which English is the primary language of instruction and is tailored to the developmental linguistic needs of English language learners to ensure achievement of content knowledge. The program allows for the smallest amount of native-language instruction necessary to supplement an English-only curriculum. However, Mario still needs native language support for academic concepts so he will not fall behind in subject matter studies.
Structured English Immersion (SEI), also referred to as Sheltered English Immersion, is a type of ESL program in which English is the primary language of instruction and is tailored to the developmental linguistic needs of English language learners to ensure achievement of content knowledge. Students in these classes are "sheltered" in that they do not compete academically with native English speakers since the class includes only English language learners. As opposed to the regular classroom, English fluency is not assumed in the sheltered English classroom. Teachers use physical activities, visual aids, and the environment to teach important new words for concept development in mathematics, science, history, home economics, and other subjects.
The program allows for the smallest amount of native-language instruction necessary to supplement an English-only curriculum. But the curriculum and presentation are designed for students who are learning the language. To ensure comprehension teachers use techniques to simplify and contextualize instruction - students learn content and language concurrently. The English language is the main content of SEI instruction. Academic content plays a supporting, but subordinate, role.
This model does not provide opportunities for language-minority students to interact with fluent English speakers. SEI is a less successful model for ELLs' long-term academic achievement than those with more significant L1 support. This program would not benefit English-native speakers.
Sheltered instruction focuses on grade-level curricula, uses English as the medium of instruction, and employs many techniques (e.g., contextual clues, scaffolding, cooperative learning, advance organizers) to help second language students access the core curriculum.
teachers and students engage in dialogue about content using summarizing, predicting, questioning, and clarifying strategies
introduces content in one language and delivers body of language in the second language
both languages are used to deliver instruction
sound system of a language
English has 44 phonemes and 26 graphemes (letters)
Phonological awareness—the explicit understanding of a word's sound structure—is critical for the efficient decoding of printed words and the ability to form connections between sounds and letters when spelling.
Phonology is the study of how sounds are organized and used in natural languages. Oral language development and phonological/phonemic awareness are critical components for the second language learner. ESL students must develop these areas in order to succeed in reading development in English. They need to have the phonology of L2 before they can make connections between letter and sound.
Phonological awareness instruction focuses on the sounds in spoken language. It is auditory and does NOT involve print. Therefore, the teacher should initially concentrate instruction on the associated target sound.
word formation or word structure
CARS - car and s means plural
Morphological awareness improves spelling and vocabulary
organization of words in a sentence
vocabulary of a language
words can change meaning depending on context
meaning system of a language based on culture and context.
Semantics is another word for meaning. It deals with the meaning of words, phrases and sentences. The semantics of the language tell us when the syntax (sentence structure) is incorrect because meaning is not present.
hidden rules of a language.
Pragmatics is the study of language use. It involves taking context into account, beyond semantics.
L1 is added through imitation of parents and caregivers
children are born with a innate ability for lanuage learning
adults provide lexicon and sociolinguistic help
both nature and nurture
LAD - Langauge Acquisition Device (kids are born with it)
parents scaffold conversation for child
stimulus, response, and reinforcement
Listen, Repeat, Memorize
Audio-Lingual Method: This approach focuses on practicing drills and memorizing dialogues. This "drill and die" method consists of lots of error correction and emphasizes practicing language patterns and perfect pronunciation
creative contstructivist theory.
Learners follow similar strategies and make similar errors to native speakers
1) Acquisition vs. Learning
2) Comprehensible Input
3) The Monitor Hypothesis
4) Affective Filter Hypothesis
5) Natural Order Hypothesis
emphasize the way native speakers deliver comprehensible input and the way they negotiate meaning with ELLs.
Stages of Second Language Acquisition
Early Speech Production
explaining a concept clearly so that an ELL can make sense of it
Personality Factors and L2 Acquisition
Extroversion, Tolerance for Ambiguity, Positive Self-Esteem, Impulsiveness vs. Reflection, High Anxiety
when speakers of two different languages come into contact and, because they do not understand each other, they develop a simple combined form of both languages. Ex. French Creole
common language used for communication in multilingual communities.
transitional construction students develop in the process of mastering a second language.
ex. espeak, estring, goed
According to theories of second-language acquisition, an interlanguage evolves within a person during the process of acquiring a second language. This intermediate language may contain properties of the learner's first and second languages and increasingly approximates the second language as the second language develops. In a way, it is a third language, with its own grammar, its own lexicon and so on. The rules used by the learner are to be found in neither his own mother tongue, nor in the target language. For example, Serbo-Croat learners of English who will produce "What does Pat doing now?" do so to approximate the second language although this construction cannot be found in Serbo-Croat.
Selinker (1972) proposed the theory of Interlanguage. According to Selinker five central processes are responsible for Interlanguage; Language Transfer is one of five. The others are (2) Transfer of Training, (3) Strategies of Second Language Learning, (4) Strategies of Second Language Communication and (5) Overgeneralization.
The interference of L1 over the structures of L2 can cause errors.
when the structures of L1 help in the acquisition of L2.
ex. reading, writing
Language transfer is the influence of the learner´s native language in a second language. When the linguistic interference results in correct language production, it is called positive transfer. However, if the learner's second language induces to error, it is referred to as negative transfer. Usually the error in English takes place when the English Language Learner follows a rule or pattern that is correct in his native language, but not in English.
process of alternative the use of two languages within a sentence or across sentences.
This may happen because young bilinguals still lack sufficient vocabulary in one or both languages to express themselves entirely in each language. Therefore, language separation is most important to maintain with young students in the process of developing two languages, so that mixing (use of sounds and words from both languages in the same utterances or conversations) and code-switching can be addressed with more fully developed literacy skills.
mutually intelligible variation of a standard language or official variety. Can be regional or social (ex. southern English or Ebonics
combines features of Standard American English and African languages.
Interdependence of language
cognitive and academic language proficiency in L1 has a positive effect in the academic acquisition of L2.
two years- puberty, children who are exposed to a second language before puberty generally develop native-like pronunciation.
Adults rely on L1 as a foundation for L2 which leads to language interference at the phonological level, but have a greater understanding of abstract components of the language and grammar than children.
Small scale adoption of cultural values with very little visible impact
People self-dividing themselves into smaller ethnic groups within a "super ethnicity" like nationality
Minority group giving up their values and language to adopt those of the majority group. Assimilation or adaptation is the process of replacing one's first culture with a second culture. It is the involvement and identification with the dominant culture totally; it is reflected by the acceptance of the new culture and self-confidence in the "new" person who has developed in this culture.
Acculturation is the process of adaptation to a new cultural environment. Integrative acculturation can be facilitated by school personnel in this case. This is the most positive acculturative response and enables the learner to deal effectively with the "side effects" of acculturation such as confused locus of control, heightened anxiety, poor self-image, and withdrawal (Collier, 2001; Padilla, 1980).
Acculturation occurs whenever we move into a new cultural, social, or linguistic environment. Bilingual education and ESL programs contribute to the acculturation of students. Biculturalism is a direct result of acculturation. Bicultural individuals are those who have been exposed to and have internalized two cultures.
Acculturation is the process of learning or adapting to a new culture without replacing the first culture. Jiao has acquired a new culture but she has not replaced her first culture with the new one. It is important to note that language is the primary medium through which culture and experiences are shared and transmitted and is a primary element in the acculturation of diverse learners. Bilingual education and ESL programs contribute to the acculturation of students. The biculturalism that Jiao enjoys is a direct result of acculturation. Bicultural individuals are those who have been exposed to and have internalized two cultures.
Language Proficiency Assessment Committee
Made up of at least one administrator, teachers, and a parent representative.
-regulates admission, treatment, dismissal, and follow up services to students in the bilingual or special language program.
The Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) was created by the Texas Bilingual Education Act to implement the state's plan for educating Limited English Proficient students. LPAC responsibilities follow:
1. Identification (Home Language Survey)
2. Assessment and documentation review ( to determine if student is LEP)
3. Placement (once it is recommended then parental permission must be obtained)
4. Methods of instruction/Instructional levels (these decisions impact instruction students will receive)
5. Coordination (and communication among all teachers to support students placed in their programs)
6. Parental notification/Consent
7. Annual review (linguistic and academic progress)
A representative from the language proficiency assessment committee (LPAC) is attending Roberto's annual ARD. The role of the LPAC representative is to assist with decisions regarding the selection of assessments and appropriate accommodations for LEP students who receive special education services.
The school's bilingual/ESL program does not need parental permission for testing language proficiency of the student. Only at the placement stage of the screening is the LPAC required to notify the parent about classification and obtain permission in writing for program entry. After the LPAC recommends placement for the student, which can take up to four weeks of initial enrollment, then written parental permission in both English and the native language must be obtained.
Identification of LEP students
1. Administer Home Language Survey
2. If other than English,
Prek-1: an oral language proficiency test within four weeks of enrollment;
2-12: an oral language proficiency test and English reading and English language arts from TEA-approved norm referenced exam (40th percentile)
Students of limited English proficiency (LEP) must be taught the content areas in the primary language as well as in English commensurate to the student's needs in the Bilingual program. Bilingual teachers need to teach the ESL TEKS when instructing students in the content areas as well as language arts and reading.
Particular attention needs to be paid to the modifications stated in the TEKS. Therefore, content-area instructional materials written in the primary language of bilingual students must be framed within state and local grade-level standards to provide language-minority students with equal access to the core curriculum.
Provides the most extensive instruction in L1
The goal of maintenance bilingual programs is to promote bilingualism and biliteracy; rather than an assimilationist goal, this model promotes pluralism. Languages other than English are seen as resources. Because it promotes the development of two languages, the outcome is additive bilingualism, which is associated with positive cognitive benefits (Cummins, 1981).
In maintenance programs, the learners are transitioned into English content classes, and are given support in their first language. They also receive language arts in their native language, enabling them to become literate in that language, and they continue to receive content area classes in their first language as well, so that they become literate in both languages. Literacy skills developed more fully in the students' primary language transfer easily and contribute to stronger English literacy skills. Cognitive skills transfer from one language to another, and students literate in their first language will apply these skills and other academic proficiencies to the second language.
In a nutshell, cognitive skills such as analysis, interpretation, evaluation, inference, self-regulation, and explanation enable students to integrate new information as they are taught it. Metacognitive strategies refer to the planning, prioritizing, thinking about the learning process as it is taking place, the monitoring of one's production or comprehension. Affective strategies are concerned with the learner's emotional requirements such as confidence, while social strategies lead to increased interaction with the target language. Students who receive literacy instruction with explicit teaching of metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective learning strategies in the primary language become more efficient and effective second language learners.
Cummins- language learner a should arrive at a certain level of academic and literacy proficiency in their L1 before attempting to transfer it to L2. Generally reached after 4-5 years of effective instruction in L1. Explains why ELLs in late exit programs have cognitive advantages over monolingual students.
Reading Readiness Theory
An old theory stating that students were unable to learn to read until they had reached a certain level of oral language proficiency and visual/auditory discriminations (age 6).
Emergent literacy perspective
Literacy can emerge naturally among children without formal reading instruction. Literacy development is perceived as a process that is parallel to oral development and emerges when children see adults engaging in meaningful literacy activities.
Stages of Reading
Newly fluent readers
Readers who are Developing phonological awareness, print awareness, directionality, use of illustrations to tell a story, retell a story that has been read to them.
Readers who They begin to connect words with their written representations (decoding) and recognize a number of sight words. Recognize features of print like punctuation, bond print, and text format. Begin to recognize the meaning of words in various contexts and understand the difference between narrative and non narrative texts.
Newly fluent readers
Readers who Need to internalize the decoding system of the language and exhibit some degree of fluency. they use inferences, deductions, and their experiences to infer meaning. Can discuss point of view of the author and compare/contrast two stories. Reading independence emerges and decoding systems become automatic.
Language Experience Aproach
A way to provide reading opportunities that better match students' schemata.
Bottom-up reading model (parts to whole). Should always be introduced within a meaningful context.
Bottom-up model of reading
Constructing meaning from letters, words, sentences, paragraphs and whole texts. Inductive and skill-based process based on principles on behaviorist psychology. Ex- phonics reading program.
Top-down reading approach
Relies on the prior knowledge that readers bring to the text in their attempt to derive meaning from print. Whole to the parts. Ex-whole language approach
Balanced reading approach
Combines features of both phonics and whole language
Type of writing that Describes events or tells a story using context and often repetition. Has beginning, middle, and end. Has characters, setting, problem, climax, and solution. ELLs transfer skills well
Type of writing that Provides an explanation of processes or concepts. Uses more technical vocabulary and less contextualized. Structured topically, chronologically, or numerically.
The idea that sounds are represented by letters and letter sequences
The initial consonant or consonant clusters of a syllable.
The combination of vowels and consonants that follow an onset.
Students analyze their experiences and write for self-expression. Teachers can be involved only when invited to do so.
Students communicate with teachers, adults, and other students about topics of interest. Teachers respond by modeling standard language use without overemphasizing corrections.
Students reflect on particular situations or content. Can be used for self assessment.
Students provide a summary of the elements they have learned and analyze difficulties.
Grade equivalent score
Measures how a student performed in terms of grade level expectations. Ex-Texas Learning Index (test)
K-2: shows proficiency in Spanish reading, given twice a year for students in the bilingual program.
Texas Proficiency Reading Inventory (TPRI)
Designed for English-dominant children to assess reading development K-2.
Equivalent to Tejas LEE, but in English (K-2).
Texas Observation Protocol (TOP)
Checklist designed to record English progress of ELLs in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. K-2
3-12: measures statewide curriculum (TEKS)
Admission, Review, and Dismissal Committee (ARD)
Special education committee
Reading Proficiency Test in English (RPTE)
Measures ELLs annual growth in English reading proficiency, ELLs in grades 3-12. Required to take it every year until they achieve advanced-high. Part of TELPAS.
TELPAS (Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System)
Designed to comply with the accountability system of NCLB legislation.
3-12: TOP and RPTE until they reach advanced high
linguistically accommodated testing (LAD)
-must not include definitions or explanations
- test administrators may be allowed to translate words, phrases, or sentences as requested by students
- students may request that parts be read aloud
- Spanish speaking students in grades 3-12 may refer to both the English and Spanish test items
- bilingual, monolingual, and ESL dictionaries may be used to find the meanings of appropriate words
- test admins may prepare written bilingual glossaries of appropriate words
- test admins may prepare written and pictorial ESL glossaries
-test admins may simplify the language used in certain test questions
- pictures and gestures may be used by the test admin to illustrate the meaning of appropriate words
State-Developed Alternative Assessment (SDAA)
Assesses SPED students in grade 3-12 who are receiving instruction in TEKS but for whole statewide assessments are not an appropriate measure of academic success.
Similar spelling and pronunciation but different meaning (ex. to, two, too)
Same pronunciation but different meaning (ex. knight, night)
Spelled the same way
Words formed from initial letters of other words ex. Radar
L2 oral language proficiency by ACTFL
Novice (preproduction and early production stages)
-participates effectively in most formal and informal conversations
-supports opinions and hypothesizes about abstract concepts
-functions effectively with most native speakers
-produces extended discourse
-strategies: continue expanding academic vocab and polishing pronunciation, check for comprehension continuously.
basical interpersonal communication skills, social language, acquired after two to four years of exposure
Assessed by Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey
Cognitive academic language proficiency (academic language), takes four to seven years
Assessed by TAKS or STAAR
Students who are literate in Spanish L1, bring strong word recognition skills to English because of the historical and linguistic connection between the two languages.
Alternative methods of assessing ELLs
~Make sure that at language issues do no interfere with assessment of content
-examples: observation by checklist, dramatizations (role play or readers theater), drawings to represent ideas, fill in the blanks with word bank.
-keep in mind: students from culturally diverse backgrounds might express knowledge differently, they'd might have an understanding of the concept but not the vocabulary to express such knowledge, organize activities to monitor student growth, one on one interviews with ELLs to explore how much they know.
Strategy for how to support ELLs until they achieve content and language mastery, language support is then eliminated.
Used to show relationships using visuals
Survey, question, read, reflect, recite, and review
A study strategy
Whole language approach
Language should not be separated into discrete components or skills, but experiences as a whole system of communication.
Examples: read aloud to children journal writing, sustained silent reading, higher order thinking skills, student choice in reading materials, frequent conferences between teacher and students.
Designed to promote English language development through content areas
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
Implementation of services for ELLs becomes a state and district responsibility (autonomy to do as they need to). Legislation requires states to ensure that ELLs do not fall behind academically and that they learn English to be successful in the all-English classroom.
Designed to support students from non traditional backgrounds who can benefit from a special language program designed to facilitate adjustment to the US. Provide linguistics and cultural activities to facilitate the adjustment.
-communicates with gestures and actions
- lacks receptive vocabulary
-some stay silent
- might experience frustration and anxiety
- heavy on nonverbal communication
- strategies: TPR and natural methods to deliver comprehensible input, visuals, concrete objects, hands on and group activities
Early Speech Production
Communicates using yes or no answers and one-word statements
Understands situations in contextualized situations
Basic social communication, oral communication
Speech Emergence Stage
-Communicates in phrases using words with high semantic context (nouns, verbs, adjective)
-beginning to understand print concept
- can understand speech and written communication accompanied by visuals
- understands more than what s/he can produce
-communicates using simple sentences
- feels more comfortable in school
- language interference and over generalizations
- strategies: avoid direct correction in communication activities, ask for clarification or to repeat, ask questions that require one word answers, highlight errors for student to self correct.
Develops academic language
Might be ready to be mainstreamed.
--strategies: guide students to develop oral and written narratives, self correct, analyzing their own work. Teach technical vocab of content before it is taught. Polish pronunciation
Meta cognitive strategy
Being aware of ones own learning
- keeping track of assignments, identifying strategies that work for you, organizing information for a test, assessing weaknesses and strengths, conducting self assessments
Describes techniques to improve understanding and increase retention of information
- linking and making connections between new and current content
- analyzing the interrelatedness between L1 and L2
- identifying key concepts while reading or listening
- note taking
-visualizing as a way to remember information
- creating charts or graphs to synthesize information
Describes techniques in which students learn from each other or learn by interacting in groups
- partner work, group work, cooperative learning, asking questions for clarifications, etc
Takes into account the physical, social, and emotional needs of the learners.
Concerned with the mental processes used in the teaching/learning process
Based on reward and punishment and uses a teacher-centered approach
Visual representation of interconnected characteristics or features of a given concept
Program for English language learners
- enhance and enrich learning among students in at-risk situations to allow them to catch up academically with peers
- high expectations, eliminating achievement gaps, interdisciplinary curriculum, involvement of parents, using language and culture of minority students
Program for language minority students
- guides students to identify real life problems, reflect on them, gather information, share it with peers, and collectively find solutions
Factors influencing L2 Acquisition
- instrumental or integrative motivation
- history of schooling
- socioeconomic background
- age of initial exposure
- home and community involvement
- expected time of residence in the country
Dangers of providing a multicultural education
The emphasis on so-called exotic differences between cultures will often accentuate a "we versus they" polarity. Students who are not able to identify with another culture because of exotic differences will often feel superior or inferior to the culture, leading to the development of stereotypes rather than multicultural understanding. Teachers can help eliminate stereotypes by presenting material and activities that enable students to learn the similarities of all individuals. Instructional strategies such as cooperative learning or group work situations are particularly helpful in this respect, as it provides students with a feeling of group identity and introduces them to the variety of cultures represented in the class. Students from different cultures often have to make major behavioral adjustments to meet the expectations of the school. Teachers should take whatever measures are necessary to see that students do not interpret these adjustments as evidence of cultural stereotypes.
Two-way bilingual or dual immersion
This program serves language majority (native English speakers) and language minority students (English language learners) in a instructional setting where both groups learn from each other in a peer teaching situation, in a challenging curriculum. Although Mario may understand some English he is not ready academically or socially to interact in this setting, especially the all-English instructional side of this program. At this stage, Mario does not feel a connection to the American culture. This social distance alone will prevent him from being successful in this new environment. Mario is not bilingual, biliterate and bicultural enough to participate in this program. The early-exit transitional bilingual model is the best remedial solution for him from the options available in this question.
Official dual-language education policies most frequently occur in countries where the population represents more than one national identity and language, such as Canada. Canada is officially a bilingual nation where its citizens speak English and French. Official dual-language education occurs most frequently in countries of diverse population that represents more than one national identity and language.
This two-way immersion program slowly integrates language-minority with language-majority students. It segregates ELLs from the mainstream for sometime.
additive bilingual education program
The additive bilingual education program model develops and maintains students' primary language while simultaneously adding a second language. In additive bilingual education programs there is no loss to students' primary language or culture. This model is important because language minority groups feel highly rejected if their cultural identity (identification of the individual with a social and cultural group) is not valued in the dominant culture. Sometimes minority group members feel devalued and do not seem to fit into the dominant culture. This phenomenon affects language minority students in schools. In bilingual programs that emphasize biculturalism both the native and target cultures should be taught. This approach affords students the benefit of gaining a sense of self-confidence and self-esteem related to their cultural identity. Bicultural education should be an enriching experience for all students, not a limiting or compensatory one; it should broaden the range of choice for cultural identity which students may one day make, but it should not make such choices for them, nor force unnecessary or premature decisions.
The strength of the program is that besides the continued cognitive development students experience in L1, which enhances their learning and reinforces cognitive development in L2, the cultural reinforcement characteristic of the program affords students the benefit of gaining a sense of self-confidence and self-esteem related to their cultural identity. A
dditive bilingualism refers to the process by which students develop both fluency and proficiency in a second language while continuing to develop proficiency in their first. The process involves adding a second language, not replacing the first language with the second language (which is known as subtractive bilingualism).
the core cognitive skills necessary for critical thinking
analysis, interpretation, evaluation, inference, self-regulation, and explanation. Therefore before critical thinking can be developed cognitive skills must be present. The bilingual students must have developed cognitive skills enough in L1 to be encouraged to use critical thinking in L1. Remember, cognitive skills transfer from one language to another, and students literate in their first language will apply these skills and other academic proficiencies to the second language. Therefore these students, with their cognitive skills in L1, are ready to apply them to learning tasks in L2.
Which of the following statements best describes when and why schools in the United States first began to use languages other than English as the language of instruction?
"European colonial settlers and early-nineteenth-century immigrant communities founded schools to preserve the community's native language and culture."
During the 19th century, large numbers of immigrant communities formed enclaves and aggressively promoted their language, religion, and cultural loyalties. They believed that it was feasible to maintain their ancestral ways of life while concurrently participating in the civil life of the nation. A number of states passed laws that authorized bilingual education. During the second half of the 19th century, bilingual or non-English-language instruction was provided in some form in many public and private schools. In 1900, approximately 600,000 children, about 4% of the elementary school population, were receiving all or part of their instruction in German (Kloss, 1977/1998).
Openness to immigrant languages in the latter half of the 19th century was partly motivated by competition for students between private and public schools. Among other factors, the isolation of schools in rural areas, and ethnic homogeneity within an area also enabled permissive attitude to mother tongue and bilingual education before World War I.
an effective strategy the bilingual teacher could use to support students in the process of acculturation and promote their academic achievement?
A dialogue journal is a written conversation in which a student and teacher communicate regularly (daily, weekly, etc., depending on the educational setting) over a semester, school year, or course. Students write as much as they choose and the teacher writes back regularly, responding to students' questions and comments or asking questions which can focus on the students' experiences in the new school and culture. The teacher is a participant in an ongoing written conversation with the student, rather than an evaluator who corrects or comments on the student's writing. This is an effective strategy in supporting English Language Learners in the process of acculturation and for promoting their academic achievement because it provides them with a safe "place" in which to reflect on their experiences and ask questions about the new school and culture. In addition, dialogue journals not only open a new channel of communication, but they also provide another context for language and literacy development.
In addition to promoting learning, this system fosters respect and friendship among heterogeneous groups of students. For this reason, cooperative learning offers much to teachers who are trying to involve English Language Learners in all-English classroom activities. However, this strategy is not particularly helpful with supporting students in the process of acculturation.
TPR -Total Physical Response
TPR activities greatly multiply the amount of language input that can be handled by beginning English Language Learners. Students become ready to talk sooner when they are under no pressure to do so. However, this strategy is not particularly helpful with supporting students in the process of acculturation.
This approach was designed primarily for students in the early stages of language acquisition. The teacher gives a command, demonstrates the command, and then students respond physically to the command. Because students are actively involved and not expected to repeat the command, anxiety is low, and student focus is on comprehension rather than production. Hence, they demonstrate comprehension before their speaking skills emerge. The imperatives, such as "Bring me the book" or "Pass your paper to the right," bring the language alive by making it comprehensible and fun.
Language Experience Approach (LEA)
has a number of features that enhance whole language learning for English Language Learners. Students learn that what they say is important enough to be written down; they learn how language is encoded by watching as their oral language is put into print; and they use familiar language — their own — in follow-up activities. It is a method developed to teach reading to language minority students. This strategy, however, is not particularly helpful with supporting students in the process of acculturation.
U.S. v. the State of Texas court case of 1981 and 1982
a U.S. District Court in Texas found the State had failed to help English language learners overcome language barriers under the Equal Educational Opportunities Act (EEOA). Although the ruling was reversed a year later, a task force appointed by the Texas governor at that time was instrumental in the drafting of Senate Bill 477, the current Bilingual Education Law in Texas.
During the first half of the twentieth century, most states in the United States passed laws mandating English as the language of instruction for public schools. These actions were largely in response to which of the following events or trends?
Massive immigration around 1900 provoked concerns among U.S. citizens about the loss of a common language and loss of control of society to foreigners.
Since the first colonists arrived on American shores, education has been provided through languages other than English. As early as 1694, German-speaking Americans were operating schools in their mother tongue. As the country expanded, wherever language-minority groups had power, bilingual education was common. By the mid-1800s, there were schools throughout the country using German, Dutch, Czech, Spanish, Norwegian, French, and other languages, and many states had laws officially authorizing bilingual education. In the late 1800s, however, there was a rise in nativism, accompanied by a massive immigration around 1900 that provoked concerns among U.S. citizens about the loss of a common language and loss of control of society to foreigners. As World War I began, the language restrictionist movement gained momentum, and schools were given the responsibility of replacing immigrant languages and cultures with those of the United States. By 1923, thirty-four states had passed laws mandating English as the language of instruction in public schools.
BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills)
are acquired first, and according to Jim Cummins, it usually takes second-language learners one to three years to be fully proficient in it. This is the social language needed to interact on the playground and in the classroom.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP).
language for academic purposes.
In an optimal second-language learning environment, most students take an average of five to seven years to develop CALPs
Which of the following models of language acquisition is based on the belief that a child's language development depends primarily on the relationship between the child's environment, perceptions, and linguistic experience?
Interactionist. According to interactionists' viewpoint, language is considered a communicative behavior that develops through interaction with other human beings; it suggests that language development occurrs largely as a result of behavioral reinforcement in a child's environment.
Functionalist's model of language acquisition
Functionalists maintain that communicative situation motivates, constrains, or otherwise determines grammatical structure. Their account of language development focus on language performance as driven by input. As such, input from the environment provides linguistic information that allows mappings between language forms and language functions. Word order, agreement and other grammatical structures are the basis of this model.
cognitive model of language acquisition
The cognitive explanation holds that knowledge of language arises out of language use and is intimately tied to more general learning strategies. Piaget, more than any other, has outlined the cognitive processes behind learning; that language development is supposed to be guided by these general cognitive principles.
Nativist model of language acquisition
Nativist theories hold that language acquisition occurs largely as a result of an innate biological process. It suggests that all human beings have an innate ability to acquire language; that children were born with a hard-wired language acquisition device (LAD) in their brains; that the human brain is predisposed to process language input according to some preset principles and will formulate rules for the comprehension and production of language
strategies used to promote the development of second language learners.
Relating words and concepts to personal experiences, providing opportunities for students to engage in extended dialogues are two of many effective strategies used to promote the development of second language learners.
Limited vocabulary knowledge is often a major hindrance to reading comprehension for ELLs. Effective teachers of ELLs support and scaffold students' content reading in a number of ways. These include activating and assessing students' prior knowledge of the topic through discussion; preteaching words critical to the comprehension of main ideas; and providing a prereading "tour" of the text to examine its structure, section headings, guiding questions, pictures, and data displays. ELLs learn word meanings through explicit instruction and through rich opportunities to listen, observe, participate, and interact.
The "Three Literacy Gaps" that hinder student learning for ELLs must be understood by novice teachers
(1) the gap between the student and the text, including readability issues, background knowledge, experience, interest, motivation, language transfer, and tolerance for challenge; (2) the gap between the teacher and the student, including perceptions and expectations, cultural and socioeconomic status, and language variables; and (3) the gap between the student and his peers, including cultural dynamics, family background, expectations, language, book access, learning rates, and literacy levels. It is the responsibility of the teacher to orchestrate a dynamic literacy environment and build bridges to overcome these learning barriers, or literacy gaps, particularly for ELLs, thus providing an open pathway for lifelong learning.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
TExES 164 Bilingual Supplemental
TExES Bilingual Educational Supplemental (164)
TExES Bilingual Educational Supplemental (164)
EC-6 Bilingual /ESL Supplemental 154
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