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History Final Exam
Terms in this set (87)
embraced orthodox democratic principles, hand-picked successor of Jackson, worried some southerners because of Northern background
Describe Martin Van Buren as a democratic candidate in the election of 1836.
Van Buren and William Henry Harrison
Who were the two main candidates in the Election of 1836?
From the Old Northwest, military hero, very unspoken about beliefs, grew up wealthy and educated
Describe William Henry Harrison as a person.
Old tippycanoe or "Tip"
What was William Henry Harrison's nickname?
1) He was not Andrew Jackson
2) Facing economic downturn known as Panic of 1837
What were the two major issues Van Buren was faced with once elected?
1) much more severe than Panic of 1819 and lasts longer
2) worst economic depression in the U.S. until Great Depression
3) blamed on democrats b/c they killed the bank
4) unemployment rises, banks fail
What were the 4 main elements of the Panic of 1819?
Democrats told public not to look to gov. for help, whigs wanted to use the government to help the panic
What was the difference in how the democrats vs. the whigs wanted to handle the panic of 1819?
1) response to banking question
2) opposition to slavery
3) indian removal
What were the 3 big policies that highlighted the struggles of Van Buren's presidency?
create independent vaults that would be used to hold federal money, but would not operate like a bank
What policy did Van Buren want to implement regarding banks?
democrats that are totally opposed to the banking system
Who were locofos?
the Africans should be free, but federal government would not pay for transportation back to Africa
What did the Supreme Court decide on the case of the Amistad?
VP for William Henry Harrison, big on state's rights, used to gain Southern votes, Calhoun man
Describe John Tyler.
anti-slavery, goal was to stop the expansion of slavery and end the internal slave trade in the U.S.
What was the Liberty party?
representative for the Liberty party, was a former slave owner, started an abolitionist newspaper
Who was James G. Birney?
1) present their candidate as a man of the people
2) reach out to the average, everyday voter
3) Emphasize the panic of 1837 as a Democratic party, was very effective
What were the 3 key features of the campaign of 1840 for the Whig party?
It was the destiny of the U.S. to expand westward
Define Manifest Destiny.
John L. O'Sullivan
Who coined the term Manifest Destiny?
progress and democracy
What were the two things settlers used when expanding?
improvements, market revolution
What did the term "progress" entail when discussing expansion?
best gov. in the world, helped areas in oppressive regions change to a democracy
What did the term "democracy" entail when discussing expansion?
expansion by any means necessary, warfare okay, very imperialistic
How did democrats view expansion?
benign form of expansion, opposed outright conquest, spread American influence, improve territory we already possess first
How did Whigs view expansion?
Economic: wanted port on Pacific coast
Religious: send protestant missionaries
How did Whigs view the economic and religious means for spreading influence?
should slavery be allowed to expand?
What was the issue that caused sectional tensions and divisions involving expansion?
John C. Fremont and and other men blazed a small trail that was safe, grew the american presence in Oregon
Who blazed the Oregon Trail?
owned by Mexico, but Americans felt like they could never bring California to it's full potential, eventually built a cali. trail that stemmed from the Oregon trail
What was the situation with California at this time?
George Donner and family set out from Illinois to California. tried "shortcut" through the Rocky Mtns. ran out of water, waited out the winter, turned to cannibalism, started with 87, 39 died
Briefly describe the Donner Party.
also owned by Mexico, would give land grants to Americans
What was the situation with Texas at this time?
1) Swear oath of loyalty to Mexican government: become citizen
2) convert to be a Roman Catholic
What were the two things required to settle in Texas?
"Father of Texas" , brought lots of men with him
Who was Stephen F. Austin?
Americans outnumber Mexicans 1 to 10, shut down Texas border to American immigration (still sneak in), political instability in government
What were some problems for the Mexican government?
Dictator of Mexico, would consolidate power by cracking down on Texas through taxes, ending slavery, etc.
Who was Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna?
Americans revolt against Mexican government, rebel against Santa Anna, take over the Alamo, Mexico sends army to Alamo
Describe the "Texas revolution."
Texas wins and captures Santa Anna
Describe the Battle of San Jacinto.
Head of Texas government
Who was Sam Houston?
1) Mexican government recognizes Texas as independent
2) Jackson recognized Texas as independent nation
3) Mexico: If you annex Texas, war will come
What were the three key main points about Texas?
Where did most immigrants settle?
Germany and Ireland
Where did most immigrants come from?
1) Napoleon Bonaparte
2) Industrial Revolution
3) European government
What were the three "push factors" that caused immigration to the U.S.?
Europe was at peace, no drafts, lack of employment
Why did immigrants migrate from Napoleon Bonaparte?
people were replaced with machines, wage cuts
Why did immigrants migrate due to the Industrial Revolution in Europe?
government was taking an active hand in moving people to the U.S., don't want to support the population
Why did immigrants migrate due to the European government?
great fear among Natives that immigrants would take jobs, because of the Panic of 1837 the fear was even more pressing
Why was immigration a problem economically?
natives worried immigrants would change political landscapes, weren't educated enough
Why was immigration a problem politically?
What party embraced the immigrants?
already had social problems, prostitution, alcoholics, violence
Why was immigration a problem in urban areas?
goal was to elect Nativists to office, pass laws that protected against the election of immigrants, curb the catholic church
What was the Native American Democratic Association?
succeeded at local level in some places, always struggled going against democrats and whigs, created faternal orders to influence politicians
Was the Native American Democratic Association successful?
secret society that supported Nativists, had to be born in U.S. and have skills to join, wanted to influence, not challenge, engaged in a propaganda war
What was the Order of United Americans?
notorious natavist, painter who invented the telegraph and Morse code, Wrote a lot of anti-catholic propaganda
Who was Samuel F.B. Morse?
1) Religious backing
2) Voluntary organizations
4) Divided into 2 groups
What were the four similarities of the larger reform movement?
provided moral uplift, spread word about consuming too much alcohol, women were the key
What were the purpose of voluntary organizations during the reform movement?
believed Americans had begun to ignore the sabbath. lots of alcohol consumption after church, wanted to close all businesses and post offices on Sunday
What was the Sabbatarian Movement?
prisons/asylums very dangerous, hardly had rights, NY led the way, wanted to change the goal of prison from isolation to rehabilitation. Changed word prison to penetentary
What was the prison and asylum reform movement?
led movement for insane asylum reforms, went to state legislations to raise money to build better asylums, teach morality, discipline and religion to the insane
Who was Dorthea Dix?
excessive alcohol consumption, "water wagon", divisions on the final goal, radicals wanted gov. to ban manufacture and sale of alcohol
What was the temperance movement?
some radicals wanted absolute equality (Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton)
What was the Women's Rights movement?
women from all over the country push for women's equality, proposed the Declaration of Sentiments which pushed for absolute equality, even the right to vote, but only 100 signed it
What was the Seneca Falls convention?
involved in Temperance movement, believed it would take a perfectly balanced diet and exercise to perfect yourself, no meat, special kind of flour for bread, no alcohol, exercise to build up immune system, limit sexual activity because it will break down body
Who was Sylvester Graham?
obtain perfection in their community, and then perfect all of society, embraced European socialist ideas
What were isolated communities?
started by Brook Ripley who said free yourself from corrupted institutions. Manual labor and education in order to reflect and perfect yourself, example of an isolated community?
What was Brook Farm?
1) Instinct of perfection
2) White southerners more defensive
3) Changing ideas of labor
What were the three main causes of the abolitionist movement?
believed society could be perfected, was a good writer who started abolitionist newspaper called the Liberator, main focus was on slavery, tactic was to use moral suasion, no political action
Who was William Lloyd Garrison?
started by William Lloyd Garrison, consisted of clergymen, businessmen and African Americans, mailed out abolitionist materials, collected petitions and sent out public speakers
What was the American Anti-Slavery Society?
reinstituted, would not hear petitions, moral suasion didn't work for white southerners, they instead became more defiant
What role did the Gag rule play in the abolitionist movement?
1) Difference of opinion on tactics
2) Leadership struggle
3) disagreement on racial equality
What were the three main problems of the Abolitionist movement?
get rid of slavery, vote as you pray and pray as you vote, struggled with established political parties, some wanted immediate ending of slavery while others wanted to keep slavery from expanding.
Describe the Liberty party.
supported the use of politics to abolish slavery, no women n leadership positions, separates from American Anti-Slavery Society
What was the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society?
Christian college that believed in Christian benevolence and perfection, many atendees believed in racial equality, public debates caused issues so they were shut down to avoid controversy, 40 abolitionists left and went to Oberlin College
What was Lane Seminary?
endorsed immediate abolitionism and racial equality, for the first time ever doors were opened to women and African Americans
What was Oberlin College?
from Kentucky, former slave owner who ran abolitionist newspaper, newspaper office was in danger, used cannons to protect it
Who was Cassius M. Clay?
in New York, citizens wanted to prohibit convention from happening, threatened lynching, mob burst into church and caused a commotion, later broke into newspaper office and destroyed the printing press
What happened at the Uteka Abolitionist meeting?
What were the two main issues for the Whigs after winning the election of 1840?
from Virginia, put in office after Harrison dies, was a state's rights Whig who was opposed to all things Clay wanted to do
Who was John Tyler?
1) Appealed independent treasury bill that was proposed by the dems
2) whigs wanted 3rd bank of the U.S. - Tyler vetoed
3) Clay resigns from the senate and goes home
4) whigs propose two bills to raise tariffs on imports - Tyler vetoed
5) whigs propose third bill and was passed
What 5 things happened in Domestic Affairs after Tyler became president?
accidency rather than excellency
What did whigs begin to call Tyler's presidency?
China and Japan-didn't want to set up colonies, just wanted to encourage trade
What two countries did Tyler want to reach out to in Asia?
in the House of Representatives, supported Tyler's idea of foreign affairs with Japan and China
Who was Caleb Cushing?
Monroe doctorine was applied, needed Hawaii as a midpoint for trips to the Pacific Asian countries
What did Tyler do to Hawaii?
established the present-day boundary of Northern Maine, taken from Great Britian, immediately after this treaty Webster left the Cabinet
Describe the Webster-Ashburton Treaty.
needed an issue that would help him gain the popularity of the American people to help him win the next election
Why did Tyler choose texas for expansion?
they resigned in protest
What did the cabinet do when they heard of Tyler's plans to annex Texas?
agreed with state's rights, very much like Calhoun, new secretary of state for Tyler
Who was Abel Upshur?
1) Mexico would declare war
2) Slavery's expansion was at question
What were the two results of annexing Texas?
not long after reaching out to Texas gov. about being independent, he was tragically killed on a warship when a gun exploded
What happened to Abel Upshur?
a letter in which Calhoun told Britain that the only reason they were annexing Texas was to protect the institution of slavery
What was the Packenham letter?
leaked it to the press because it proved that Tyler had a sectionalist mindset
What did Abolitionists do with the Packenham letter?
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