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self-educated former slave who led the slave revolt in Haiti against France. Defeated Spanish, English, & French armies. Was defeated and exiled by Napoleon. His Lt General, Dessalines finally won independence in 1803.


Spaniards born in Latin America - Rebel group in South America

Influences - Why did people rebel in Latin America?

Ideas of the Enlightenment of freedom of life, liberty, & property reached them. After hearing the American and French Revolutions à ignited a spark amongst the Latin American colonies
Slaves in Haiti rebelled, abolished slavery, and won independence
Father Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican Independence Movement
French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies gained their freedom

Simón Bolívar

a creole leader of the revolution in South America. from Venezuela.
Gained independence for northern areas of South America
Wanted to unite all the colonies under one government (a republic); create a United States of South America
Spanish rule had left northern South America by 1825
Gran Columbia soon after broke into civil war and was broken apart.

Miguel Hidalgo

a leaders of the revolution in Mexico. Padre in a small village in Mexico
Started the revolt in Mexico against the Spanish
He was defeated, but his acts led to many more rebellions in the next decade until Mexico won their freedom in 1821.


Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class (on the Iberian Peninsula)

Monroe Doctrine

Issued by Pres. Monroe in 1823. Statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Notice to Europe, that Latin American nations are to be considered independent.
US warns that any European interference in the Western Hemisphere will be considered a threat to their own peace and safety.

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