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Elementary Statistics 12th edition by Mario F. Triola
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Terms in this set (39)
data
collections of observations, such as measurements, genders, or survey responses.
datum
singular form of data
statistics
the science of planning studies and experiments; obtaining data; and then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, and interpreting those data and then drawing conclusions based on them
population
the complete collection of ALL measurements or data that are being considered
census
collection of data from every member of the population
sample
a subcollection of members selected from a population
voluntary response sample
(self-selected sample) a sample in which the respondents themselves decide whether to be included
statistical significance
achieved in a study when we get a result that is very unlikely to occur by chance
practical significance
when results show that some treatment or finding is effective, but common sense suggests that the treatment or finding does not make enough of a difference to justify its use or be practial
correlation
association between two variables (does not imply causation)
nonresponse
when someone either refuses to answer a survey question or is unavailable
precision
does not mean accurate
parameter
numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population
statistic
numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample
quantitative data
(numerical) consist of numbers representing counts or measurements
categorical data
(qualitative or attribute) consist of names or labels that are not numbers representing counts or measurements
discrete data
result when the data values are quantitative and the number of values is finite or countable
continuous data
result from infinitely many possible quantitative values, where the collection of values is not countable
nominal level of measurement
characterized by data that consists of names, labels, or categories only. The data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme
ordinal level of measurement
characterized by data that can arranged some order, bu differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless.
interval level or measurement
data that can be arranged in order, and differences between data values can be found and are meaningful. Data at this level do not have a natural zero starting point at which none of the quantity is present
ratio level of measurement
data that can be arranged in order. Differences and ratios are both meaningful. There is no natural zero
observational study
when we observe and measure specific characteristics, but we don't attempt to modify the subjects being studied
experiment
we apply treatment and then proceed to observe its effects on the subjects
simple random sample
every possible sample of the same size n has the same chance of being chosen
random sampling
each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected (usually generated by computers)
simple random sampling
a sample of n subjects is selected in such a way that every possible sample of the same size n has the same chance of being chosen
systematic sampling
select some starting point, then select every kth element in the population
convenience sampling
use results that are easy to get
stratified sampling
subdivide the population into subgroups (or strata) so that subjects within the same subgroup share characteristics, then draw a sample from each group
cluster sampling
divide the population into sections (or clusters), then randomly select some of those clusters, and then choose ALL members from those selected clusters
retrospective study
an observational study in which one goes back in time to collect data over some past period
cross-sectional study
an observation study in which data are measured at one point in time
prospective study
an observational study in which one goes forward in time and observes groups sharing common factors
confounding
occurs in an experiment when the investigators are not able to distinguish among the effects of different factors
sampling error
occurs when the sample has been selected with a random method, but there is a discrepancy between a sample result and a true population result
nonsampling error
result of human error
nonrandom sampling error
the result of using a sampling method that is not random
frequency distribution
shows how
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