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Archeologist
A scientist who is trained like a detective to uncover the stories of prehistoric people.
Artifacts
Human made objects (tools or jewelry)
Anthropologist
A scientist who studies the culture of prehistoric people by looking at objects left behind
culture
a people's unique way of life
paleontologist
a scientist that studies evidence of early life preserved in rocks
fossil
evidence of early life preserved in rocks
nomads
mobile people who move from place to place foraging for new sources of food
5 characteristics of a civilization
record keeping, advanced technology, advanced cities, specialization of workers, complex institutions
ziggurat
"Mountain of God", place for worship, city hall and used for grain storage
Neolithic Revolution
the beginning of systematic agriculture
Fertile Crescent
curved shaped region that provided the best farming in the Middle East
City-state
A city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
dynasty
a series of rulers from one family
polytheism
the belief in more than one god
empire
political system the brings together several peoples, nations, or independent states under one ruler
Hammurabi's Law Code
This was used to unify the Babylonian Empire, it included 282 laws
delta
Broad, marshy, triangular area of land formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of a river
Pharaoh
Egyptian god-king
theocracy
type of government in which rule is based on religious authority
hieroglyphics
"sacred carvings", Egyptian system of writing
divine rights
concept where a ruler received his authority from the heavens
migration
the moving of a people from one region to another
caste system
the social system in India
reincarnation
an individual soul or spirit is born again and again until moksha is achieved
Siddhartha Guatama
Buddha's real name
Phoenicians
Civilization of great shipbuilders and sailors, establishing trading colonies throughout the Mediterranean. Had the language of 22 characters
Torah
The first 5 books of the Hebrew bible
Abraham
considered the "father" of the Hebrews.
monotheism
the belief in one god
covenant
the mutual promise between God and the Hebrew people
Moses
this man led the Hebrews out of Egypt and received the 10 commandments
Cyrus the Great
He allowed the Hebrews to return to Jerusalem to rebuild their temple. He was considered a military genius, tolerant leader, ruler of the Persian Empire
New Kingdom
The period of time in Egypt that the empire became more powerful and wealthy. Included the rule of Queen Hatshepsut, King Thutmose III, King Ramses II
Ashurbanipal
He collected over 20,000 tablets creating the ancient world's largest library in Ninevah
Royal Road
This was used to create a quick and easy route for communication throughout the Persian Empire
Zorastrianism
This religion taught that earth was in a constant struggle between good and evil. Can be seen in modern religions.
Confucius
This man had a deep desire to return order and moral living to Chinese society
Daoism
The philosophy of thought believes that there is a universal force called the Dao
legalism
this philosophy believes that government should be used to end civil disorder and restore harmony
autocracy
A government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner
Great Wall
Built under the Qin dynasty with the use of peasant labor
Mountainous terrain, long coastline, moderate temperatures
geographical features of Greece that had an impact on Greek politics
Trojan Wars
War fought between the Greeks and Trojans over trade route along the Mediterranean
Homer
Blind storyteller who wrote the Illiad and the Odyssey
myths
the name given to traditional stories about the Greek gods
polis
another name for Greek city state
acropolis
a fortified hilltop where citizens gathered to discuss city government in Greece
monarchy
a king or queen makes all governmental decisions
oligarchy
power is in the hands of a few people
tyrant
someone who seizes power by appealing to the common people for support
democracy
rule is by the people
Draco
created a system of laws that dealt harshly with those who broke the law
direct democracy
allows citizens to rule directly instead of through representatives
classical art
values of harmony, order, balance, and proportion became the standard for this type of art
Peloponesian Wars
war fought between Athens and Sparta
philosophers
"lovers of wisdom"
Socrates
charged with "corrupting the youth of Athens", and sentenced to death by hemlock
Plato
wrote The Republic
Aristotle
Taught Alexander the Great, his work helped to establish the scientific method today
Alexander the Great
the son of King Philip II and attacked the Persian empire. Later died of a fever at the age of 32.
cuneiform
wedge shaped writing developed by the Sumerians
republic
power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders
Senate
300 members and was considered the aristocratic branch of Rome's government
legion
5,000 Roman soldiers
Punic Wars
the 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage
civil war
conflict between groups within the same country
Julius Caesar
Conquered Gaul and became the absolute ruler of Rome eventually stabbed to death 23 times by the Senate
Augustus Caesar
first ruler the Republic named Octavian given the title "exalted one"
roads
this allowed for easy trade throughout the Roman empire
Jesus
born in the town of Bethlehem approximately around 6-4 B.C., a carpenter
Constantine
Roman emperor that recognized the Christian religion when he placed crosses on his soldiers' and created a document that declared Christianity a Roman Emperor approved religion
inflation
drastic drop in value of money and increase in prices
mercenaries
foreign soldiers who fought for money
Constantinople
New capital of Rome, named for Constantine
Hellenism
Mixing of Greek, Roman, and Hellenistic cultures
Latin
language used by the Romans, has influence upon many languages today
aqueducts
these provided fresh water daily to the Roman people
Bedouin
Arab nomads
Ka'aba
ancient shrine located in Mecca
Allah
Arabic word for God
Muhammad
Muslim religious figure who was orphaned at age 6, became a trader at 25, a prophet at 40 whose wife was Khadijah
Islam
"submission to the will of Allah"
Muslim
"one who has submitted"
Mosque
Islamic house of worship
Qu'ran
Holy book of Muslims, the collection of Muhammad's revelations
jihad
"striving" or the inner struggle against evil
algebra
Al-Khwarizmi, a mathematician developed this form of math that was "the art of bringing together unknowns to match a known quantity"
Justinian's Code
Uniform code of laws created under Justinian that was created from over 400 years of Roman law
patriarch
leading bishop of the Eastern Church
ex-communication
taking away the membership to the church
Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox
2 churches that formed when the Christian church split in 2
Hagia Sophia
nicknamed "holy wisdom" it was the largest cathedral built of its time during Justinian's rule over the Byzantine Empire
Slavs
IndoEuropeans who migrated into Central Europe and became Poles, Slovaks, Slovenes, Czechs, Serbs
Mongols
Nomadic Turkic peoples who unified much of Eurasia under Genghis Khan, conquered Russia, Islamic Empire, and China
Kublai Khan
This Mongol ruled China and rebuilt the trade along the Silk Road
Shintoism
Religious beliefs in Japan called animism in which spirits reside in nature
Middle Ages
The medieval period from 500 to 1500
monastery
name given to places where monks and nuns sought refuge from the chaos of the rest of the world
Charlemagne
named Charles the Great, extended Frankish rule, started the Carolingian Revival and was given the title "Roman Emperor" by the pope
fief
land granted by a landowner to a serf
serf
group of people not allowed to leave the land they were born
manor
the lord's estate
chivalry
set of ideals that a knight must do to defend their 3 masters
sacraments
important religious ceremonies (like Baptism)
canon
church law
Holy Roman Emperor
Formerly known as the Roman Empire of the German Nation created by Otto I
crusades
a "Holy War" to gain control of the Holy Land
Jerusalem
city that was captured in 1099 by Crusaders
Reconquista
effort by the Spanish to push Muslims out of Spain
Spanish Inquisition
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella used this to restore order to and suppress heresy in Spain after the Reconquista
guild
organization of individuals in the same business/occupation working to improve the economic/social conditions of its members
vernacular
everyday language of their homeland
Battle of Hastings
the battle that took place after the King Edward the Confessor died without heir which changed the course of English history in 1066 when William the Conqueror defeated Harold Godwinson
jury
a group of 12 loyal people in England who answered a judge's questions about the facts of a case
common law
unified body of law created from court rulings of England's royal judges
Magna Carta
document that King John was forced to sign allowing certain basic political rights in England
parliament
legislative group in England, created by King Edward I, composed of two houses
Great Schism
split in the church that occurred in the 14th century which greatly weakened its power in Europe
bubonic plague
deadly disease that killed 1/3 of Europe's population; known as Black Death
Hundred Years War
war that started with the death of the last Capetian king in France, introduced the longbow to battle ended the age of chivalry, forced the English from France entirely
Ghana
1st great African trading kingdom 300 A.D., located between gold mines and salt trade
Mali
2nd great West African Muslim trading kingdom during the 1200s which taxed all goods transported through its kingdom ruled by Mansa Musa
Songhay
3rd great West African Muslim trading kingdom which was larger that Mali and Ghana and defeated by armies from Morocco
Zimbabwe
Bantu speaking culture located in the interior of Africa around 1000 A.D. that built advanced stone enclosures
Berber
North Africans who traded salt for gold trade with sub-Saharan Africans
Mayans
MesoAmerican empire located on the Yucatan Peninsula, devised the use of zero, and created accurate calendars
Aztecs
group that built a warrior empire centered at its capital Tenochtitlan and based around human sacrifice
kipu
name for the knotted rope system used as a method of record keeping by the Incas
Incas
empire centered in Peru that built a network of roads and bridges through the Andes
Renaissance
rebirth/revival of the Arts and learning
Micheangelo
Renaissance artist who was best known for his paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and his statue of David
Leonardo Da Vinci
Considered a true "Renaissance man", this Renaissance artist was responsible for the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper
Raphael
Renaissance artist famous for his use of perspective in his paintings including School of Athens
Machiavelli
Wrote the famous work The Prince
Thomas More
Wrote the book Utopia
Shakespeare
Considered the most famous writer of the Elizabethan Age in England whose works included Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and Macbeth
Gutenburg
Built the printing press in Mainz, Germany in 1440 printing a bible as the first book from the press
Indulgences
A pardon releasing someone from performing the penalty for a sin
Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther's actions started this in Europe
Peace of Augsburg
Stated that each prince would decide the religion of his kingdom
John Calvin
Believed that God knows from the beginning of time who will be saved and continued the Reformation in Switzerland later creating the Calvinist faith
Catholic Reformation
Also called the Counter Reformation
Compass, Sextant, Astrolabe
3 things that made it possible for Europeans to sail large distances
Columbus
sailed for the Spanish in 1492 and led to disputes between the Spanish and Portuguese
Da Gama
Reached Asia by traveling around Africa and securing precious cargo such as spices and silk
Amerigo Vespucci
America is named after this man
Magellan
Discovered Guam and the Philippines by sailing around South America, but died in a local war in the Philippines
conquistador
Spanish conquerors of Latin America
Cortez
Conquistador that conquered the Aztecs at Tenochtitlan for Spain
Jamestown
Settlement that was established in 1607 and named for King James of England
France lost land east of the Mississippi
Effect of Seven Years War on the U.S.
triangular trade
slaves, rum, and guns were involved in this trade
middle passage
the journey slaves took from Africa to the West Indies and then to the Americas
Columbian Exchange
transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas
Capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership and the investment of resources
Mercantilism
the idea of a country's power being dependent upon the amount of wealth that country had
export more than import
how a favorable balance of trade worked
Spanish armada
what the Spanish launched in 1588 to to attack England and Queen Elizabeth I, but was defeated by the English
absolute monarch
the form of government where kings/queens hold all power within their states' boundaries based on the concept in which the monarchy was placed on Earth as his representative
Cardinal Richelieu
ruled France during Louis XIII's reign as king
Cardinal Mazarin
Louis XIV's finance minister who enacted mercantilist policies to gain wealth for France
Louis XIV
monarch nicknamed the "Sun-king" and lived at his palace in Versailles, France
Romanov
family that became the new dynasty in Russia in 1613
Peter the Great
became the czar of Russia in 1696, went on a 'Grand Embassy" to the west to westernize Russia and built the city of St. Petersburg with the labor of serfs
Oliver Cromwell
created the New Model Army and eventually created/ruled over the English Commonwealth
habeus corpus
law that gave every prisoner the right to obtain a writ or document ordering that the prisoner be brought to court to specify charges against the prisoner
Glorious Revolution
the name for the event in which William and Mary staged a bloodless overthrew of King James II of England in 1688
constitutional monarchy
form of government that limits the power of the ruler with laws
Scientific Revolution
the period of time in which scholars challenged accepted beliefs with new theories based on the work of scientists such as Galileo, Kepler, and Vesalius
heliocentric
theory that was devised by Nicolas Copernicus which paced the Sun at the center of the universe
Galileo
developed the law of universal gravitation
Enlightenment
intellectutal movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems
John Locke
believed people were capable of self government and developed the idea of natural rights such as life, liberty, and property
Rousseau
wrote The Social Contract which argued this agreement was different because the people were creating the government and society were a free people able to choose for themselves what was best
Montesquieu
developed the idea of separation of powers
Boston Tea Party
how Americans protest the British Tea tax in Boston
Declaration of Independence
document written by Thomas Jefferson in Philadelphia, PA during the Second Continental Congress of 1776 which brought forth the ideas of life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness
Article of Confederation
the U.S. first form of government which failed due to no executive or judicial branches, had no power to collect taxes, and passing laws and making changes to the government were nearly impossible
US constitution
US second form of government still used today which was created in Philadelphia, PA at the Constitutional Convention in 1787
checks and balances
a system in which each branch of government could check the actions of the other two to prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful
Federalist Papers
written in support of ratifying the constitution by men such as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay.
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments to the Constitution that protect some of our very important individual rights as citizens
Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette
leaders of France before and during the French Revolution who were characterized as weak/poor rulers
Tennis Court Oath
the pledge the National Assembly made to stay until they had created a new constitution
Declaration of Rights of the Man and Citizen
Adopted by the National Assembly that stated revolutionary ideals, but neglected the rights of women
guillotine
device used during the French Revolution to make executions easier and more humane
Robespierre
Jacobin leader that slowly gained power and became leader of the Committee of Public Safety
Reign of Terror
period of time in which Robespierre governed France as a virtual dictator
Napolean
born on Corsica and sent to military school in France and later ruled as a military dictator
Coup de'tat
a sudden seizure of power, "Blow to the state"
Napoleonic Code
uniform set of laws created by Napolean during his time as dictator of France
Louisiana Purchase
Thomas Jefferson purchased this from Napolean and France for $15 million
guerilla warfare
military tactic where people ambushed the enemy and fled into hiding
Battle of Waterloo
battle that Napolean is defeated by the Duke of Wellington
legitimacy
principle established by Klemens von Metternich at the Congress of Vienna
balance of power
political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others
divine rights
hereditary right of a monarch to rule
Industrial Revolution
the greatly increased output of machine made goods that began in England in the middle 1700s
capital, resources, workers
factors of production
Eli Whitney
invented the cotton gin
entrepreneur
person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risk of business
Robert Fulton
built the steamboat Clermont
Slater
emigrated to the U.S. in 1789 and built a spinning machine from memory and a partial design
stocks
certain rights of ownership
corporation
business owned by stockholders who share in profits but are not responsible for debt
monopoly
a group's exclusive control over the production and distribution of certain goods
laissez faire
economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference
Adam Smith
wrote Wealth of Nations which included the 3 laws of economics: self-interest, competition, and supply and demand
Utopian society
founded in New Harmony, IN by Robert Owen
socialism
factors of production owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
Karl Marx
outlined the idea of Marxism in the pamphlet The Communist Manifesto
communism
the form of socialism that meant the means of production would be owned by the people
strike
when workers refuse to work
Horace Mann
favored a free public education for all children
imperialism
seizure of power of a country or territory by a stronger country
Social Darwinism
application of Charles Darwin's idea about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies, used to justify imperialism
Berlin conference
meeting of 14 European nations to determine the rules for dividing Africa
assimilation
a policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs
geopolitics
an interest in or taking of land for its strategic location or products
Crimean war
this war destroyed the balance of power in Europe and essentially ended the work of the Concert of Europe
annexation
adding of a region to the territory of n existing political unit
spheres of influence
an area in which a foreign nation controls trade and investment
open door policy
proposed that China's "doors" be open to merchants of all nations to prevent China from being carved into formal colonies by Europe
Boxer Rebellion
event that showcased the frustration of Chinese peasants
Monroe Doctrine
document issued by Monroe in 1823 that stated Latin America was hands off to Europe
Spanish American war
the conflict in which the U.S. got involved in the Cuban war for Independence in 1898
Panama Canal
what the U.S. completed in 1914 in Latin America that would provide a quick sea route to the Pacific from the Atlantic Ocean
Roosevelt Corollary
issued by president Theodore Roosevelt in 1904 as an extension to the Monroe Doctrine giving the U.S. the right to be "an international police power" in the western hemisphere
militarism, imperialism, nationalism, tangled alliances
4 major causes of World War I
Otto von Bismark
known as the "Blood and Iron Chancellor" for his work unifying Germany with war
Russia, Great Britain, France
countries of the Triple Entente
Franz Ferdinand
his assassination sparked the start of World War I
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire
Allied Powers
Great Britain, France, U.S.
trench warfare
soldiers fought from trenches trading huge losses for small gains which resulted in a stalemate
unrestricted submarine warfare
German policy in which submarines would sink without warning any ship in the waters
Zimmerman Note
telegram from Germany to Mexico that promised German support of Mexico's conquest of lost lands from the U.S. and pushed America into World War I on the Allies' side
rationing
system that limited the amounts people could purchase for certain items vital for the war effort
propaganda
one sided info designed to persuade people
armistice
an agreement to stop fighting
Woodrow Wilson
created the Fourteen Points
self determination
allowing the people to decide for themselves under what government they wish to live
League of Nations
the 14th point which was included in the Treaty of Versailles was supposed to create an international association whose goal would be to keep peace among nations.
Nicholas Romanov
the Russian czar who took throne in 1894 and led Russia during WWI
Lenin
leader of the Bolsheviks during the Russian Revolution
communism
type of government that Russia changed to after the Russian Revolution
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Russia's new name
Stalin
took control of the Soviet Union after Lenin by placing his supporters in key positions within the Communist Party
Italy, Austria-Hungary, Germany
Triple Alliance