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55 terms

Neuro lec 6

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Cerebrum
aka telencephalon, most superior region of CNS. Composed of cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system.
Olfactory bulb
involved in smell
Brain stem
provides main motor and sensory innervations to the face and neck via cranial nerves
Cerebellum
coordination/time
Central sulcus
prominent landmark of brain separating parietal lobe from frontal lobe
Superior temporal gyrus
auditory cortex and sensation of sound
Corpus callosum
divides brain
Cingulate gyrus
emotion, processing, learning
Fornix
C-shaped bundle of axons that carries signals from hippocampus to mamillary bodies and septal nuclei.
Optic chiasm
part of the brain where the optic nerve partially cross
Calcarine fissure
where the primary visual cortex is concentrated
Amygdala
almond-shaped groups of nuclei; primary role is memory of emotional reactions/fear.
Hippocampus
long-term memory and spatial navigation
Hypothalamus
homeostatic functions
Midbrain
aka mescencephalon
Tegmentum
unconscious homeostatic and reflexive pathways
Tectum
auditory and visual reflexes
Pons
relays signals from the forebrain to the cerebellum, deals with sleep, respiration, swallowing,bladder control, eye movement, facial sensation, posture
Medulla
vital body functions such as breathing and heartrate
Pineal body
produces serotonin derivative melatonine (sleep/wake cycle)
Basal forebrain
production of acetycholine
White matter
mostly myelinated axons
Gray matter
all kinds of axons and capillaries, neural cell bodies as well
Putamen
regulates movement and learning
Globus pallidus
planning and inhibition of movements
Caudate nucleus
learning and memory
Internal capsule
motor function
Insula
homeostasis, self awareness, cognitive functioning
Mammillary body
recognition memory
Substantia nigra
reward, addiction, movement
Ventral nucleus
somatosensory
CT Scan
uses x-ray beams (rotating) to generate a brain slice and digitally reconstruct the image
MRI
uses info on how hydrogen atoms respond in the brain to perturbations of a strong magnetic field
Functional Imaging
looking at the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and mental functions, ex: PET, fMRI, EEG, etc.
fMRI & PET
detect changes in blood flow & metabolism in the brain. Since ative neurons have more glucose & oxygen, there is more blood flow there.
Cell bodies in layers, surface layer separated from pia mater, apical dendrites form multiple branches
What are common features of the cortex?
Frontal lobe
separated from parietal lobe by post-central gyrus. Contains dopamine sensitive areas of cortex associated with reward, attention, long-term memory, planning, and drive.
parietal lobe
integrates sensory info ffrom different areas
occipital lobe
lobe involved in vision
temporal lobe
lobe involved in auditory perception
neocortex
outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres, made up of six layers labeled I to VI. Is part of the cerebral cortex. Involved in sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning, conscious thought, and language.
Apical
outer extremities
Neocortex
top layer of cerebral hemispheres in brain of mammals
Gyrus
Convex fold or elevation in surface of brain
Sulci
grooves/trenches/fissures in brain
Cingulate (cortex)
situated in the medial aspect of the cortex, includes cortex of cingulated gyrus, which lies immediately above corpus collosum.
Calcarine fissure
vision (near occipital lobe)
Amygdala
processing and memory of emotional reactions/fear
Thalamus
sensory switchboard of the brain
Hypothalamus
homeostatic functions
Proscencephalon
forebrain
Telencephalon
upper part
Diencephalon
lower part of forebrain
Mescencephalon
midbrain
Rhombencephalon
hindbrain