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Chapter 13 Chem II
Terms in this set (75)
__ separate from each other when ionic compounds are dissolved in water if soluble
When an ionic compound dissolves in water, the ions separate from one another. The separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves
The ionic solid must be broken up into its constitutes according to its ??. Formula units always produce ? or more ions
Chem formula, 2
A substance is considered soluble if it's solubility is greater than ?
1 g/ 100 g H2O
It is insoluble if solubility is less than ?
0.1/100 g H2O
In between is ??
Insoluble substances are very sparingly soluble and extremely small quantity of these substances produces a ??
Dissociation equations cannot be written for ? compounds
Although no compound is completely ?, compounds with very low solubility can be considered to be insoluble for most practical purposes
Can be used to predict what will happen if solutions of two different soluble compounds are mixed.
If the mixing results in a combination of ions that forms an insoluble compounds, a ?reaction and ? will occur.
Double replacement and precipitation
Precipitation occurs when the attraction between ions is greater than the attraction between ions and ? molecules
Process in which ions leave a solution and form an ionic solid
Reactions of ions in aqueous solutions are usually represented by ?? Equations rather than formula equations
includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution
Net ionic equation
They do not include any ions or substances that do not actually ? in the chemical reaction
Ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution both before and after the reaction and are omitted from the net ionic equation
All soluble ionic compounds are shown as ? ions in solution. The precipitates are shown as ?
*see net ionic equation examples
Some molecular compounds can also form ? In solution
These compounds are usually ?
Ions are formed from solute molecules by the action of the solvent in a process called ?
Ionization means to create ? where there were none, ionization is different from dissociation
When an ionic compound dissolves, the ions that we're already present and ? from one another
When molecular compounds dissolves and ionizes in a ??, ions form where none existed in the undissolved compound
The ions are hydrated. The E released as heat produced during hydration provides the E needed to break the ??
The extent to which a molecular solute ionizes depends on the ? of the bonds within the molecules of the solute and the strength of attraction between the ? and ? molecules
Strength, solute and solvent
If the strength of the covalent bonds in the solute are weaker than the ? forces of the solvent molecule, the covalent bond of the solute breaks and the molecules is separated into ?
Attractive and ions
The ?ion attracts other molecules or ions so strongly that it does not exist alone
The H+ ion will covalently bond to an O2 in a water molecules and forms H20 called the ?
The reaction of H+ ion to form the Hydronium ion produces much of the ?needed to ionize a molecular solute
An electrolyte's strength depends on how many ??it contains
Substances that yield ions and conduct an electric current in solution
Substances that do not yield ions and conduct an electric current in solution are
The strength with which substances conduct an electric current is related to their ability to form ? in solution
Any compound whose dilute aqueous solution conducts electrically well due to the prescience of all or almost all of the dissolved compound in the form of ions
The distinguishing feature of strong electrolytes is that to whatever event they dissolve in water they yield only ?
Some molecular compounds form aqueous solutions that contain dissolved ? and some dissolved molecules that are not ?
Ions and ionized
Any compound where dilute aqueous solution conducts electricity poorly due to the presence of small amount of the dissolved compound on the form of ions
Strong and weak differ in the ?? Concentrated and diluted solutions differ in the ? of some dissolved in given quantity of solvent
Ionization and dissociation, amount
A property that depends on the number of solute (concentration) particles but not on their identity
Lowering vapor pressure depends on ? Solute concentration
The boiling point and freezing point of solution differ from those of the ??
A nonvolatile solute raises the ? And lowers the ?
BP and FP
Has little tendency to become a gas under existing conditions (does not evaporate easily)
Pressure caused by molecules in the gas phase that are in equilibrium with the liquid phase
The vapor pressure of a solvent containing a nonvolatile solute is ? than the vapor pressure of the pure solvent at the same T
Solute particles decrease the number of ? particles at the surface and the VP of the solvent ?
Solvent and decreases
The solute particles ? solvent particles trying to escape from the surface of the liquid
This ? the rate at which solvent particles can escape into the gas phase and decreases the amount of ? produced. Less vapor means less ?? than the pure solvent
Decreases and vapor. VP
When the VP has been lowered, the solution remains liquid over a larger T ranges thus ? FP and ? the BP. The changes in FP and BP depend on the ? of the solute
Lowering and raising. Concentration
the difference between the FP of the pure solvent and a solution of a non electrolyte in that solvent and is directly proportional to the m concentration of the solution
Freezing point depression
the freezing point depression of the solvent in a 1 molal solution of a nonvolatile, non electrolyte solute. Each solvent has its own characteristic molal FP depression constant
FP constant (Kf)
What is the equation for change in temp.
Change in temp. (Freezing point) = Constant (Kf) molal
A solution with a non-electrolyte solute will have a ? boiling point than the pure solvent
the T at which its VP of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric P on its surface.
The BP of the liquid
A change in the VP of the liquid will cause a change in the ?
If the VP is lowered, the BP is ?. If the VP is raised, the BP ? The VP of a solution containing nonvolatile solute is ? than the VP of the pure solvent. This means more ? as heat will be required to raise the VP of the solution to equal the atmospheric pressure and the BP of a solution is ? than the BP of The pure solvent
Raised, decreases. Lower. Energy , higher
The BP elevation is the difference between the boiling point of the pure solvent and a non-electrolyte solution of that solvent is directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution caused by a plate and is represented by ?
Change in Tb=Kbm
BP constant is the BP elevation of the solvent in a 1 molal solution of a nonvolatile, non-electrolyte solute
Determined by the concentration of dissolved particles
An aqueous solution is separated from pure water by a ?membrane. The semipermeable membrane allows the ? of some particles whole ? the passage of others
Semipermeable, passage, blocking
The level of the surface solution will rise until a certain ? is reached. This membrane will allow water molecules to pass through but not larger ? particles
The sucrose molecules of the solution side allow ? water molecules to strike the membrane than strike on the pure water side in the amount of time. The rate at which water molecules leave the pure water side is greater than the rate at which they leave the ?
This causes the level of the surface solution to rise until the ? exerted by the height of the solution is large enough to force water molecules back through the membrane from the solution at a rate equal to that at which they enter from the pure water side
The movement of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane from the side of lower solute concentration to the side of higher solute concentration
Osmosis occurs whenever 2 solutions of different ?are separated by a semipermeable membrane
is the external pressure that must be applied to stop osmosis
Osmosis is caused by the level of the solution to ? until the height of the solution provided the pressure necessary to stop osmosis, the ? the concentration of the solution the greater the osmotic pressure of the solution
Because colligative properties depend only on the number of ?? and not on their ?, BP elevation and FP depression can be used to determine the molar mass of soluble, nonvolatile electrolytes
Solute particles, identity
The total molality of all dissolved particles determines changes in ??
Electrolytes produce two or more ? of particles for each mole of compounds dissolved. Colligative properties depend on the total ? of solute particles regardless of their identity. The changes in colligative particles caused by electrolytes will be proportional to the molality of all dissolved particles, not to formula units. The expected change will be related to the number of ? produces.
Moles. Concentration , ions
Each solute ion is surrounded by more ions of opposite charge than of like charge.
The cluster of hydrated ions can act as a ? unit rather than ? ions. The effective concentration is less than expected on the basis on the number of ions known to be present
The ? of colligative properties of electrolyte solutions are less than expected because of this attraction between ions in solution
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