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Cancer death rates
Cancer is responsible for >23% of deaths in the US (~12-14%) worldwide
1 in 3 persons will be diagnosed with cancer and 60% of those diagnosed will die of cancer
Cancer is recognized as the number 1 most important "killer", overtaking cardiovascular disease
Overall cancer rates among adults around the world vary minimally, but the types of cancers are dramatically different
Environmental factors linked to cancer tobacco, diet
Diet may affect cancer idea around for decades
Causes of cancer
80 -90% of all cancers are related to Environmental Factors that modify the structure and function of DNA
Carcinogens: toxic chemicals, environmental contaminants
Diet is a major environmental factor and may account for up to 40% of cancer risk
Leading cancer types
Cancer can be Preventable
Increasing rates of new cases of cancer took a turn for the better after 1992 and correspond to declines in rates of tobacco use
Associations of diets with risk for development
Cancer basic terminology
A group of diseases in which abnormal cells grow out of control and can spread throughout the body.
"mitosis (cell division) out of whack"
Apoptosis-normal destruction of cell by body due to damage, some other abnormality
How do cancer cells differ from normal cells?
Diminished or unrestrained control of growth (proliferate uncontrollably)
Invasion of local tissues
Spread, or Metastasis, to other parts of the body
hallmarks of cancer
Cancer cells are immortal: there is no limit to the number of times that they divide
Cancer cells proliferate uncontrollably; no contact inhibition
The hallmark of cancer is immortality combined with uncontrolled growth.
Composed of three steps:
Every minutes, 10 million cells in the body divide
Usually they divide the right way
Cancer begins when something goes wrong that modifies cell division
start of the cancer process, which begins with alteration of DNA within the cells.
The period in cancer development when the number of cells with altered DNA increases
Uncontrolled growth and spread (metastasis) of cancer cells.
1. Initiation more in depth
1. p53: "tumor suppressor" gene
activates DNA repair proteins when DNA has sustained damage.
can initiate apoptosis, the programmed cell death, if the DNA damage proves to be irreparable.
Inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene through mutation by environmental factor is a common event in the development of colon cancer
Risk factors for p53 mutation:
large body mass index
Western-style diet such as high consumption of red meat and simple sugars
1. Superoxide Dismutase
Natural enzyme found in cells that prevents free radical damage
Functions as antioxidant
is an anion, lacking one electron
is a free radical
With help of Cu as coenzyme, S.D. "dismutates" superoxide radicals into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide
Increases stability, naturally prevents cancer initiation from propagating
Direct acting carcinogens - damage DNA directly
Indirect acting carcinogens - processed before damaging DNA, either metabolically activated or altered first
Initiation - non-reversible
Genotoxic - DNA damaging
Promotion - reversible
Epigenetic - non-DNA damaging
Progression - 7 cumulative mutations on avg. to push cancer to progression - usually resulting in Gene mutation
spread of cancer cells
is the ability of neoplasms to migrate to other tissues or organs to form additional tumors
step 2 is metastasis, step 3 is invasion
Only beginning with progression are cells classified as "cancer cells"
appearance of cancer cells
can usually be removed
usually does not come back
does not spread to other parts of the body
cells do not invade tissue
can still be dangerous!
can invade and damage nearby tissues and organs
metastasize (enter blood stream or lymphatic system)
Environmental factors linked to Cancer
low fruit and veggie in diet
unsafe sex (HPV)
Some people have an increased tendency toward cancer
Develop cancer if regularly exposed to certain substances in the diet or environment
Endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus), oral, thyroid, and bone cancer do not appear to be related to inherited factors
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
infection is a necessary factor in the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer
Westernization of dietary intake and lifestyle increases can risk of cancer
Japanese and western women example
The diet can contain many cancer preventative foods
Foods contain vitamins and minerals, fiber and phytochemicals that protect the body against cancer
Substances in plant foods appear to work synergistically to confer protection
extracted phytochemical supplements do not
regular intake of array of foods
Fruits and Vegetables
People who consume plenty of vegetables and fruits (5 or more servings daily) have a lower risk of developing a number of types of cancer than people who eat few
Vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamin E, and selenium are antioxidants in vegetables and fruits
Damage to DNA related to cancer initiation may be caused by exposure to oxidizing substances that disrupt molecules within DNA;
antioxidants are able to repair damaged DNA
Phytochemicals in vegetables and fruits may participate in cancer prevention by protecting cells from damage due to oxidation and by inhibiting the multiplication of abnormal cells
But remember supplements vs. foods!
Foods are the best sources of AO
3 cruciferous (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts) vegetable servings/wk reduce the risk of lung, bladder, and prostate cancer
Phytochemicals participating in cancer prevention are brightly colored (food choices)
This feature has led to the advice to select and consume colorful vegetables and fruits (variety)
Smoked, cured, and pickled foods and cancer
Cancer of liver and stomach associated with foods preserved by smoking, salting, nitrites, and pickling.
nitrosamines -cancer promoting (gastric)
Stomach cancer risk increases with high salt intake
Grilled and Charred Meats
Substances in beef, chicken, fish, and other meats become cancer promoting if heated to high temperatures
They form during grilling, broiling, or even searing meat in a very hot frying pan -- when the very high temperatures break down the amino acid creatinine
When this occurs heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are formed.
HCAs are carcinogenic and are linked to cancer initiation
Cancer-promoting substancescan also form on meat when fat drips into heat source and smokes
Oxidative damage, free radical formation
Body fat, dietary fat, and cancer
Excessive levels of body fat increase risk of cancer
Tendency to store fat around waist increases risk of cancer (higher rates in men, internal stress, inflammation)
High body fat levels cause excessive hormone production stimulating division of abnormal cells (insulin, sex hormone function)
Some high-fat diets associated with higher cancer risk
Possibly due to increased caloric intake
Guidelines on diet, nutrition, and cancer (conclusion)
Two thirds of people in U.S. do not develop cancer
Maintain a desirable body weight.
Eat a varied diet.
Include >5 servings of fruits and vegetables in the daily diet.
Eat more high fiber foods (GI).
Reduce total fat intake (maybe)
Limit alcohol intake (liver stress).
Limit consumption of salt-cured, smoked, and nitrite-preserved foods.
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