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135 terms

Test 1 Intro to sonography

abbrv, prefixes, and suffix, vocab 1-4, PPTs, communication, grieving process, infection control, types of memory, smds, ardms, aium and their responsibilities, people in history of U/S.
STUDY
PLAY
AIUM
promote the usage of ultrasound in physical medicine
SDMS
promotes excellence in the field and sets high educational standards. adopted a code of conduct
ARDMS
evaluates and certifies the proficiency of sonographers
brachio-
arm
cardio-
heart
co-
together
colo-
colon, large intestine
contra-
against
cysto-
bladder
dactyl-
pertaining to fingers or toes
decub-
side
dorso-
back
dys-
difficult or painful
ecto-
outside
encephalo-
pertaining to brain
endo-
within
entero-
pertaining to the intestines
epi-
upon
gastro-
pertaining to the stomach
hema-/hemo-
pertaining to blood
hemi-
half
hepato-
pertaining to liver
hydro-
pertaining to water
-itis
inflammation
-oid
like
-oma
tumor
-osis
abnormal condition or process
-pathy
abnormality
-phobia
abnormal fear
-plasty
surgical correction
-ptosis
falling or drooping
-rhapy
suture
-scopy
inspection
-tomy
incision
-uria
contained within the urine
ultrasound
Sound with frequencies above the upper limits of the human ear (2 to 20 MHz).
sonography
The imaging of deep structures of the body by recording echoes of pulses of ultrasonic waves directed into the tissues and reflected by tissue planes where there is a change in density.
Acoustics
the scientific study of sound, especially of its generation, transmission, and reception.
sonographer
an Allied Health professional with special training in the use of ultrasound equipment for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. One who graphs or draws with sound.
transducer
a device that converts electrical signals into ultrasound waves and ultrasound waves back into electrical impulses.
sonologist
a person who studies sinology, the science of sound.
sonometer
an instrument for measuring the sharpness and range of hearing through the use of controlled amounts of sound.
sagittal
a vertical plane passing through the standing body from front to back. The mid-sagittal, or median, plane splits the body into equal left and right halves.
superior
in anatomy, above or over top of.
inferior
in anatomy, below or toward the feet.
longitudinal
or relating to length. It means along the length, or running lengthwise.
transverse
a horizontal plane passing through the standing body so that the transverse plane is parallel to the floor.
medial
relating to, situated in, or extending toward the middle.
lateral
structure lying away from the midline.
coronal
the plane that divides the body into front and back portions.
christian johann doppler
an Austrian scientist who first postulated the effect of motion on the pitch of sounds and named it the Doppler Effect.
curie brothers
discovered piezoelectricity. They established the presence of the piezoelectric effect when they observed that crystals will expand and contract when placed in an alternating electrical field. Their discoveries led to the development of the modern transducer.
piezoelectricity
The property of certain crystals that causes them to produce voltage when a mechanical pressure such as sound vibrations is applied to them.
john wild
first to use ultrasound to detect tissue thickness. researched that cancerous tissue is different from normal tissue. constructed early prototype breat scanner and rectal transducer to scan large bowel.
ian donald
developed a contact compound scanner along with Tom Brown in 1957. In 1960 they developed a mechanical sector scanner, then later a hand-held scanner which they called the diasonograph. He is credited with contributing to the diagnosis of hydramnios, multiple pregnancies, and hydatidiform. He also introduced the fluid-filled bladder technique. He is well known as the "father of obstetric ultrasound" for the first demonstration of a fetal gestational sac.
body mechanics
the use of correct movements during the performance of any activity.
vital signs
- temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure as indicators of the functioning of the body.
medical asepsis
measures taken to keep health care workers, patients, and the environment clean to prevent the spread of germs; sterile or free of microorganisms
strict isolation
Separation from others to prevent the spread, by contact or airborne transmission, of highly contagious diseases.
respiratory isolation
used to protect others from germs in the patient's nose, mouth, throat, and lungs. It is used for diseases that are airborne.
enteric precautions
used in diseases involving ingestion of disease-producing microorganisms to protect others from germs in the patient's bowels, bladder, and stomach.
wound-skin precations
used to protect others from germs in patient's wounds or any other heavily contaminated areas.
reverse protective isolation
protects patients from the germs of others. It is used with persons who have extremely impaired resistance.
tachycardia
an abnormally fast heart rate. Can be caused by heart problems, fever, and overactive thyroid, or drugs.
bradycardia
abnormally slow pulse.
hypertension
a persistently high arterial blood pressure
hypotension
a persistently low arterial blood pressure
dyspnea
- labored breathing
systolic pressure
The contraction of the heart.
diastolic pressure
The relaxation of the heart between contractions. The dilation or enlargement of an opening or a hollow organ or tube.
respiration
the act of respiring; inhalation and exhalation of air; breathing.
colostomy
surgical procedure to form an artificial opening in the large bowel.
ileostomy
an artificial opening into the ileum.
intravenous
an artificial opening into the ileum.
universal precautions
suggested program to provide safety to both patient and caregiver from blood or certain infections. The CDC and other federal agencies have compiled these recommendations.
pythagoras
greek mathematician, began systematic study of sound and observed the relationship between sound pitch and frequency
archytas of tarentum
greek schloar; defined nature of sound. sound is produced by the motion of one object striking another. fast motion - high pitch. slow motion - low pitch.
aristotle
greek philosopher; produced theory of sound propagation. sound is carried by the ears by the movement of air
boethius
roman philosopher; first to compare sound waves to the waves produced by dropping a pebble into a calm body of water.
leonardo da vinci
originated the idea that sound travels in waves. credited discovery that angle of reflection = angle of incidence.
galileo
frequency of sound waves determine pitch
sir isaac newton
derivation of the theory of velocity
robert boyle
popularized the theory of elasticity of air
lord rayleigh
published the theory of sound. marked the beginning of the modern study of acoustics
lazzaro spallanzani
studied activities of bats. theorized bats were listening to something he could not hear.
george ludwig
first used ultrasound to detect gallstones at MIT
G.W. Pierce
invented a sonic detector
Karl Dussik
became first physician to use ultrasound for diagnostic purposes
william fry
explored possibilities that high intensity ultrasound could provide a noninvasive lower risk surgical technique. designed multiple transducer system of focused high intensity beams to produce pinpoint lesion without damaging surrounding tissue.
francis fry and elizabeth kelly
studied use of ultrasound to detect breast cancer. kelly is one of the leading authorities on ultrasonic breast scanning
Communication
exchange of information by sending and receiving messages.
Sender
the originator of the message or idea
Interaction
feedback that results from the receiver's response
Receiver
someone to receive and interpret the message
Verbal Communication
transmission of words in either verbal or written form
Nonverbal Communication
eye contact, facial expressions, body movements & postures, tone of voice and touch
Competency
The state or quality of being adequately or well qualified; ability. A specific range of skill, knowledge, or ability. In sonography requires continuing education in addition to training.
Confidentiality
discretion in keeping secret information, patient's right to privacy of all medical information
Ethnicity
an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties;
Culture
The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. These patterns, traits, and products considered as the expression of a particular period, class, community, or population
Mores
The accepted traditional customs and usages of a particular social group, their moral values.
Traditions
Beliefs or customs taught by one generation to the next, often orally.
Personal Space
region surrounding a person which they regard as psychologically theirs. Invasion of personal space often leads to discomfort, anger, or anxiety on the part of the victim. Personal space varies from culture to culture.
Social Conversation
automatic type of communication that people use out of habit. Consists of polite friendly exchanges of factual and social information.
Supportive conversation
goal oriented and information bearing, patient information is obtained.
Grieving Process
stages of behaviors that people experience when a loss occurs. The process often takes a considerable time period and passage through it may not go smoothly or in the "proper" order.
Grieving Process: Stage 1
denial & isolation: the "no-not me" stage
Grieving Process: Stage 2
anger: "why me?" stage
Grieving Process: Stage 3
bargaining: bargain with God in an attempt to postpone the inevitable
Grieving Process: Stage 4
depression: realize the reality of their loss
Grieving Process: Stage 5
acceptance: patient is at peace with him/herself, controlled stage where intense feelings are absent.
Hemoptysis
bloody sputum
Hemostasis
stopping the flow of blood.
Hernia
protrusion of an organ or part of an organ through the muscular wall.
Hyperplasia
an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue or organ.
Hypertension
a persistently high arterial blood pressure.
Hypervolemia
an abnormal increase in the circulating blood volume.
Hypoplasia
underdevelopment of tissue or an organ, usually caused by a
decrease in the number of cells.
Hemorrhage
excessive bleeding.
Incontinence
inability to hold urine or feces.
Intercostal
between the ribs.
Interstitial
lying between;the spaces beween the cells;intercellular.
Intravenous
within a vein,often meaning an injection into a vein.
Ligation
the application of a tie around a vessel or hollow tube, such as the fallopian tubes.
Malaise
weakness, lack of energy, and vague sense of bodily discomfort.
Menorrhagia
profuse menstrual flow.
Metabolism
the chemical processes of life.
Metrorrhagia
abnormal bleeding from the uterus during the intermenstrual period.
Micturation
the passing of urine.
MI
heart attack.
Necrosis
the death or decay of one or more cells, or a portion of tissue
in which the growth is uncontrolled and progressive;usually results from an interruption of blood supply or injury.
Nephron
a microscopic functional unit in the cortex of the kidney.
Nocturia
excessive urination at night.
Occlusion
a blockage
Oophorectomy
the surgical removal of an ovary.