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44 terms

Biology II Exam III

Biology II Exam 3 Flashcards
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amines
hormones that are derived from tyrosine or tryptophan
cholesterol
steroids are derived from
epinephrine
example of water soluble hormone (1)
dopamine
example of water soluble hormone (2)
testosterone
example of fat soluble hormone (1)
cortisol
example of fat soluble hormone (2)
thyroid releasing hormone
hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to make thyroid hormone
prolactin
hormone that stimulates the production of milk
luteinizing hormone
hormone that stimulates the release of eggs in females
oxytocin
hormones that target smooth muscle uterine contractions (during birth and milk ejection)
endocrine portion
Islets of Langerhans are found in the
alpha and beta cells
Islets of Langerhans produce
alpha and beta cells
Islets of Langerhans produce
leptin
hormone produced in adipose tissue that acts in satiation
IGF-1
stimulates elongation of bones, especially during puberty
GH
acts on liver to produce insulin-like growth factor-1
causes them to molt
what effects do 20-hydroxyecdysone have on insect development
reproduction
what are sex hormones for?
budding
portion of parent organism pinches off to form complete new individual
regeneration
complete organism formed from fragment of parent body
parthenogenesis
development of offspring from unfertilized eggs.
some animals reproduce sexually or parthenogentically
gametogenesis
formation of games
asexual reproduction
simple to produce many copies
can reproduce asexually even if isolated
can reproduce rapidly
more prevalent in species that live in stable environments with little selection pressure for genetic diversity
sexual reproduction
requires 2 individuals
allows for greater genetic variation due to genetic recombination
spermatogenesis
process by which a gamate goes from 2n to n
head (sperm)
contains genetic information passed onto child
midpiece (sperm)
contains mitochondria to keep cell alive
flagellum (sperm)
allows sperm to swim forward (not backward)
zona pellucid and cumulus mass
two layers that surround the ova
innate immunity
immunity - defenses present at birth and that function the same way regardless of invade.
acquired immunity
immunity - develops after exposure and targets an invader specifically.
antimicrobial protein
The nonspecific defense that uses membrane attack complex (MAC) to create channels in microbial plasma membrane
nonspecific defense
Interferons are proteins that generally inhibit viral replication inside host cells in response to viral infection.
inflammation
Destroy or inactivate foreign invaders, clear the infected area from dead cells and other debris and set stage for tissue repair.
leukocytes
Engulf foreign matter and destroy it. (nonspecific defense)
active immunity
Acquired response to exposure to antigen
Natural or as a vaccination/immunization
passive immunity
Direct transfer of antibodies from one individual to another
Naturally via placenta or breast milk
Artificially when human patient given IgG molecules (for example after exposure to hepatitis)
S hort-lived because memory cells are not produced
plasma cells
produce antibodies
memory cells
remember antigen that invaded the body so second response can be faster.
fast block to polyspermy
fusion between the egg and sperm depolarizes the eggs so that no more sperm may enter.
blastocyst
a solid ball of cells during cleavage
blastocoel
fluid filled central region of a blastocyst
blastula
cells of a blastocyst
does not change size
how does the size of a fertilized cell compare to the size of a blastocyst?