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AP CSP Abstraction 1
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Terms in this set (25)
Abstraction
to reduce detail or information for a purpose in a program; to generalize concepts so that they can be used in a variety of instances
Digital data
letters, numbers, characters, or other information that has been transmitted or stored electronically
Bit
a single binary digit which can contain either a 1 or a 0
Byte
a group of 8 bits; can express the same amount of information as two hexadecimal digits
Nibble
a group of 4 bits; can express the same amount of information as one hexadecimal digit
Binary number system (base-2)
a number system in which each number represents a power of 2; each digit is a 1 or a 0
Hexadecimal number system (base-16)
a number system in which each number represents a power of 16; each digit can be 0-9 or A-F
Decimal number system (base-10)
a number system in which each number represents a power of 10; each digit can be 0-9
Binary sequence
a series of 1's and 0's
Programming language
a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer or computing device to perform specific tasks; usually refers to high-level languages, such as BASIC, C, COBOL, Java, FORTRAN, Pascal, Python, etc.
Low-level language
A programming language such as machine language or assembly language that relies on zero or very few abstractions; machine language can communicate directly with the CPU
High-level language
A programming language which is similar to human languages and which relies heavily on abstractions; the language must be compiled (or translated) into machine code in order to be executable on a computer
Floating point numbers
Non-integers; real numbers; can cause calculation problems when converting fractions to base-2, base-10, or base-16 numbers
Software
the instructions and programs that tell computer hardware how to function
Levels of abstraction
The amount of complexity by which a system is viewed or programmed. The higher the level, the less detail. The lower the level, the more detail.
Binary data
Information stored as 0's and 1's
Boolean function
a function that combines conditions with AND, OR, NOT, and/or XOR and returns either "true" or "false"
Logic gate
one of the building blocks of a computer chip, logic gates typically take two inputs and return either true or false
Chip (as an abstraction)
Low-level hardware components that perform specific functions; usually grouped onto a motherboard; types include processor, BIOS, memory, graphics, audio, networking, power, fan controllers, etc.
Hardware
the physical components of a computer
Lower-level abstractions
abstractions with lots of detail; very specific
Higher-level abstractions
abstractions with few details; broad
Model
a virtual representation of real object(s) or environment(s) in a more abstract way (with less detail)
Simulation
a virtual representation of how an object or environment will behave or react given a set of conditions or inputs; more abstract (with less detail) than reality; used to understand or solve a problem
Hypothesis
an educated theory or guess that is subject to testing and experimentation with the goal to prove or disprove it
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