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Arts and Humanities
Women in American History (5-8)
Terms in this set (106)
Wage-earning women supported the woman suffrage movement because they were promised that the vote would
raise women's wages.
An extremely organized and politicized manifestation of cutting-edge feminism in the Progressive era was the struggle for
After the United States entered World War I, Ida B. Wells-Barnett was threatened with jail because she
defended black soldiers executed by the U.S. government.
What did the disparity in average working men's and women's wages reflect in 1900?
Men had the most skilled jobs.
When the power of the maternalist argument fell short, what issue did reformers have difficulty with?
Ending child labor
What was significant for women reformers about the 1912 presidential election?
Two of the three political parties supported woman suffrage.
To introduce a more radical suffrage approach that broke from the NAWSA's previous campaigns, Alice Paul and Lucy Burns
conducted a western campaign to oust Democrats from office.
What feminist goal did Charlotte Perkins Gilman advocate?
Collective housework to ease women's domestic burden
Jane Addams became the first American woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for
her role in the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.
Activist women viewed supporting the war as an opportunity to
demonstrate their right to full citizenship.
Why did women establish the Women Wage Earners Association during World War I?
To assist migrating black women workers
Female social reformers during the Progressive era often described women's activism by drawing on the image of
How did clerical work change as more women moved into the occupation?
While this work was increasingly open to women, it ceased being an avenue of upward mobility.
What is notable about the Progressive Party's position regarding women?
It fully integrated women into all its activities.
How did a new generation of suffrage leaders try to bring the suffrage movement into conformity with the realities of urban, industrial, modern America in the early 1900s?
They rejected the outdated term "woman suffrage" for the more modern term, "votes for women."
How was the Great Migration of African Americans from southern rural communities to northern urban centers during the 1910s different from European and Asian migrations?
African American women comprised almost 50 percent of migrants.
What did African American women hope to gain from suffrage?
A counter to the disenfranchisement of African American men
What ground-breaking step was taken by the National Woman's Party as they tried to push for woman suffrage?
Picketing the White House
What strategy did the National Consumers' League develop to argue against the Supreme Court's refusal to accept a maximum workday for women in Lochner v. New York?
They reasoned women workers needed special protection because they could become mothers.
What was a central principle of "Maternalism," a term coined by recent historians to refer to the Progressive-era justification for women's programs?
Society needed to protect motherhood for the good of the nation.
What was the goal of the Women's Trade Union League (WTUL)?
To reconcile women workers with the organized labor movement
What was the turning point in the Lawrence textile strike of 1912?
When children were beaten by police, which drew negative publicity for factory owners
Why did it take so long to win votes for women?
Large numbers of women with little else in common had to unite behind this goal.
Why was Margaret Sanger arrested in 1916?
For operating a birth control clinic
Why did women organize a silent march down the streets of New York City in 1914?
To protest the violence of war
Why were the women strikers successful in the garment workers' strike of 1909-1910?
Harassment of upper- and middle-class WTUL members brought newspaper headlines.
Why did campaigns against Native American tribes in the West intensify after 1865?
The U.S. Army had been released from the military campaigns of the Civil War.
The government-run boarding schools for Native American children in the late nineteenth century
forcibly educated children in the values of white American culture.
How did the Dawes Severalty Act affect Native women?
It created a land allotment program, which deepened the dependency of Native women on men.
What was the period after the Civil War like for most Spanish-speaking women in the Southwest?
A period of little change to their domestic lives as they continued to live much as earlier generations had done
In the late nineteenth century, some young European women emigrated to the United States to
flee overbearing fathers and arranged marriages.
What was a result of the immigrant practice of sending teenage daughters into the American labor force?
Difficult family tensions, as parents demanded the daughters' wages
For what crime was Emma Goldman arrested and convicted?
Inciting a riot
Why did southern Populism fail in the late nineteenth century?
Southerners saw cooperation between black and white farmers as a threat to segregation.
Jane Addams was significant because she was a
prominent leader in the settlement house movement.
What successful movement did missionaries of the WCTU (Woman's Christian Temperance Union) help launch in Japan?
What happened to the women and children of the Native tribes that resisted the encroachment of white settlers in the West?
They were killed with impunity by pursuing American troops.
How did the lives of Hispanic women differ from those of white women in the West in the late 1800s?
Local hispanic practices favored female property owning, and when widowed, Hispanic women did not remarry but served as heads of their households.
What do historians mean by the term "Family West"?
The settlement of farm families in the West
What did both white working- and upper-class women share in the Wild West?
A common purpose, which was to distinguish themselves from disreputable women
How did Americans regard the Japanese practice of shaskin kekkon (literally, "photograph marriages")?
They regarded it as yet another indication of the allegedly low morals of Asians.
Hull House, the most influential settlement house in the United States, embraced the philosophy of
building bridges between immigrant cultures and American culture.
Why did women activists find it difficult to end child labor in the United States?
Immigrant parents resisted such efforts because they needed their children's income to survive.
Florence Kelley was important in the late 1800s because she
worked to get workplace safety laws passed in Illinois.
How did many immigrant wives and mothers make money?
They took in single male immigrants as boarders.
In mining and cow towns, working-class wives made money by
running boardinghouses that fed and housed single men.
The 1867 organization of the National Grange changed women's lives by
offering leadership roles to women when they were recruited as officers
What does historical evidence suggest was the greatest burden for women settlers on the Great Plains?
Drudgery and loneliness
What role did women play during the Pullman strike of 1894?
Wives joined the picket lines to protest low wages and high rents.
What philosophy was embraced by Hull House, the most influential settlement house in the United States?
Building bridges between immigrant cultures and American culture
How did women help support the Spanish-American War?
Women raised funds for military hospitals.
Why was legislation passed in 1875 to discourage the immigration of Chinese women?
Americans assumed that most Chinese women were being brought over to be prostitutes
Within the growing number of wealthy American families after the Civil War, the expected role for women was to
consume and display the family's wealth.
What was a distinctive component of American cultural life for middle-class women in the late nineteenth century?
Membership in a women's club
How did the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor (AFL) treat working women in the late 1800s?
The Knights welcomed women workers; AFL leaders believed that women should stay at home.
How were the requirements for operating a typewriter different from operating a sewing machine?
Typists were required to have an education and a command of the English language; operating sewing machines required little formal training.
Why did "homosocial" relationships come under attack in the late nineteenth century?
Physicians characterized the relationships as "unnatural" or "abnormal."
Why did most black families choose sharecropping over other forms of agricultural labor during Reconstruction?
Sharecropping allowed black families to work independently without direct white oversight.
How did the woman suffrage movement respond to the congressional debates over the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments?
Women split over whether to endorse the Fifteenth Amendment, which omitted the word "gender."
What was the argument about woman suffrage advanced by the New Departure theory of the suffrage movement?
Women were persons under the Fourteenth Amendment and thus, as citizens, had the right to vote.
The Supreme Court's decision in Minor v. Happersett
established that voting was a privilege, not a right of citizenship.
Many freedwomen responded to the defeat of the Confederacy by
taking to the road or advertising to find lost spouses and family members.
Black codes were laws passed by
southern states to limit the freedom of freedmen.
Why did many poor white women who worked in southern textile mills in the 1880s consider this work a privilege?
Factories hired only white women, which made the work seem to be a racial privilege.
Why did white southern groups such as the Ku Klux Klan charge that black men were sexual predators who sought access to white women?
To assert control over African American men in the aftermath of slavery
What did the U.S. Supreme Court rule in Plessy v. Ferguson?
Segregation was legal and compatible with the Fourteenth Amendment.
A common criticism of working women in the late nineteenth century was that they
took jobs away from male breadwinners.
By the late nineteenth century, what gains in women's rights had been realized?
Women had the right to vote in territorial and local elections in Wyoming and Utah
The National Women Suffrage Society was formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in response to
Congress not including the word "gender" in the Fifteenth Amendment.
Susan B. Anthony demonstrated the New Departure theory when she
petitioned the U.S. Supreme Court to declare the Fourteenth Amendment unconstitutional.
How were elite white southern women affected by Reconstruction?
For the first time, elite white southern women had to cook and launder for their own households.
What was the danger that African American men faced in the reconstructed South for the slightest suspicion of disrespect to a white woman?
Lynching by a mob
Ida B. Wells was significant because she
campaigned to stop lynching.
Which of the following describes the progress of Reconstruction in the South between 1865 and 1900?
After the U.S. Army withdrew from the defeated southern states, white-dominated legislatures reestablished white supremacy and instituted segregation.
How did the sewing machine affect women's labor in the textile industry?
Clothing manufacturing was divided into discrete tasks, and a single worker no longer made an entire piece of clothing.
What was justified by the "family wage" concept of the late nineteenth century?
Paying men higher wages while paying women significantly less
What was Harriot Stanton Blatch encouraging women to do when she advocated "voluntary motherhood"?
Choose when and how often to become pregnant
What did the endorsement of woman suffrage by the WCTU convince Susan B. Anthony to do?
Form one national organization of all women's groups that supported suffrage
The image of the "New Woman" emphasized "women's work," a term that meant women
should participate in paid labor or public service.
Prostitution in California in the mid-nineteenth century had a distinct racial hierarchy with which group at the bottom?
What was one remarkable aspect of women's involvement in the antebellum reform movement?
As many as 10 percent of women in the Northeast were involved in reform groups.
Moral reform activists viewed prostitutes as
victims of men's sexual excesses.
What argument drew many women to the temperance movement in the 1840s and 1850s?
A man who stopped drinking would better support his family.
The Shakers, founded by Mother Ann Lee, challenged conventional notions of marriage by
prohibiting all sexual relations, even within marriage.
Many female abolitionists were pushed toward advocating women's rights by their realization that
free women experienced barriers to personhood like those faced by slaves.
Congress responded to the petition drive of female abolitionists in the 1830s by
passing the "gag rule," which tabled all antislavery petitions.
The Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 issued a manifesto that in both style and philosophy echoed the Declaration of Independence when it called for
equality of men and women before the law.
In the 1840s, Elizabeth Cady Stanton lobbied to get the New York legislature to pass a bill that
gave wives control over their inherited wealth.
During the Civil War, northern women activists, such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, formed the Women's National Loyal League to
pressure Lincoln to adopt a broader emancipation policy.
Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1851-1852) dramatized
Harriet Jacobs's escape from slavery twelve years before.
The year 1848 was significant in U.S. history because the Mexican War, Seneca Falls Convention, and founding of the Free Soil Party all inaugurated
movements that challenged preexisting social boundaries.
What do documents detailing life on the Oregon Trail show?
Women's workdays on the trail were generally several hours longer than men's.
In a recurring example of cross-cultural misunderstanding, white emigrants on the Oregon Trail often believed they were under imminent attack by Native Americans when
Native groups were actually approaching the wagon trains to demand money and food.
What happened to many Native women who left their own people to live with white men in informal sexual and domestic unions at U.S. Army forts or trading centers in the West?
They were abandoned when white women arrived and ended up living on the edges of white culture.
The work of northern women during the Civil War differed from that of southern women in that they
created a national umbrella organization to provide services to the troops.
In the spring of 1863, the women of Richmond rioted in the streets protesting
food shortages and triple-digit inflation.
During the California gold rush, most middle-class women who traveled with their husbands to the gold-digging sites made money by
offering domestic services to single men
During the moral reform movement in the late 1830s, women emphasized their Christian maternal role and responsibilities in order to
expand their social authority outside the home.
By participating in the temperance movement, women were able to
criticize men for their failure to provide for and protect their families.
Antebellum female health activists, responding to women's menstrual, reproductive, and sexual complaints, advocated that
women ignore regular doctors and adopt alternative therapeutic regimes.
The Oneida community, which challenged many notions of conventional marriage, earned its greatest notoriety by
rejecting monogamy and advocating extramarital sexuality.
The call for the immediate and uncompensated abolition of slavery and full civil rights for black people came first from
the free black community.
How did the activities of the Grimké sisters produce a split in the abolitionist movement?
Their defense of women's equal rights created divisions over the proper role of women in the movement.
The most controversial resolution of the "Declarations of Sentiments and Resolutions" passed at the Seneca Falls Convention in July 1848 was that
women had an equal right to vote.
What was the major issue facing reformers and the country in the 1850s?
the spread of slavery
In 1863, New York City was paralyzed by mobs rioting and protesting
the passage of the Conscription Act.
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