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Bio Lecture Exam 3
Terms in this set (44)
The earth and the solar system was created about how many years ago?
Earth used to be only as molten ball of rock without oxygen. In a few sentences, how did life begin?
Th earth had to cool down first for the oceans to perform to protect organisms from uv rays
Explain the purpose of the Miller and Urey experiment in 1953.
Showed that amino acids could live without oxygen and suggested abiotic synthesis for molecules
In 1977, a deep sea vent was discovered that was teeming with life. Various sulfide chemicals released by hydrothermal vents could have served as an energy source. Why was this discovery significant?
Shows that organisms use toxic H2S as an energy source to make food rather than light
Panspermia is another theory that attempts to explain how life began on earth. What does this theory suggest?
That life began somewhere else
Name the necessary steps for life to begin on earth
1. Abiotic synthesis of small molecules needs to happen
2. Formation of more complex polymers that store info and perform chemical reactions
3. Molecules pack together to enable cooperation and phospholipids form into double layers in water
How do we know photosynthesis started ?
Old fossils in rick forms
Iron in oceans oxygen caused it to rise up and show the oldest layers
How did the addition of oxygen change the earth? Specifically what did it cause for the organisms that were already living without it?
Archea hide and became extinct while bacteria adapted to it
T/F The Cambrian explosion is when prey evolved mechanisms for defense such as shells and spikes while advanced senses evolved.
T/F The amphibian vertebrates were the first wave of organisms to move onto land
False, Arthropods and insects
T/F The endosymbiotic theory is the idea that a large archea cell engulfed a bacterial cell and they became so dependent on each other that they eventually could not live without one another
Which organelle proves the endosymptiotic theory?
No nucleus, lack organelles, smaller, have hair like follicles and plasmids
Have a nucleus and are complex/bigger
What do both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have?
Ribosomes, chromosomes and phospholipids
This structure is additional outer layer made of lipopolysaccharide that is resistant to many stresses. Some prokaryotes have this
T/F Prokaryotes use flagella to bore into substances
False, for movement
Positive taxis and example
Move towards; flies are attracted to light
Negative taxis and example
Move away; flatworms don't like the light
T/F The three domains of life are archeae, bacteria and eukarya
T/F Prokaryotes can reproduce sexually and asexually
What is an endospore formation and why do prokaryotes use it?
Cells wrap its chromosomes in extra thick layers of cell to protect itself and once safe they emerge form dormancy. Prokaryotes use it in stressful conditions
Photoautrophy is an organism that
Feeds itself using light. Photosynthesis
Chemoautotrophy is an organism that
Feeds itself using chemicals
Feeds off the bodies or products of other organisms to acquire nutrients and energy
do not require oxygen
can live with or without oxygen
2 nuclei and 8 flagellum; parasitic and lacks plastids; found in anaerobic environments ex. Giardia
Flagella, May be mutualistic with animals, some are parasites. May cause trichomonas an STD
Flagella (pair at the end); free living in pond. May cause trypanosoma or Chagas
Alveota; flagella; photosynthetic; responsible for red tides ex. Zooxanthellae
Alveota; animal parasites; complex organelle at apex of cell ex. Plasmodium
Alveota; has cilia rather than flagella; macro nuclei or micro nuclei
Stromenopilia; heterotrophic protists; decomposes
Stremenopilia; plankton; has outer she made of silica
Stromenopilia; flagella; single felled; phytoplankton
Stromenopilia; largest algae in the world ex. Kelp
Red algae; used for agar and carrageenan
Chlorophyta and Charophysceans
Green algae; grows in shallow depth where light penetrates water
Amoeba; shells made of calcium carbonate; pseudopodia
Amoeba; internal skeleton called a test
Amoeba; lobe-like pseudopodia
How did its early atmosphere contain the chemical ingredients for life?
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