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Sport Psychology 304 LeUnes exam 4
Terms in this set (191)
Sport Opportunity Structure
A form of discrimination where minorities are denied access to the opportunities for success in athletics
Peripheral positioning of minority players in sports such as football and baseball
Sport activities such as pitching a baseball or games such as golf or bowling that focus on an individual player's self-initiated tasks.
Sport activities such as hitting a baseball or sports such as boxing in which the individual player reacts to another player's initiated task
A sport and cultural event for athletes, artists, and musicians that was created to expressly for gay athletes to compete at a high level
Sports such as skydiving, hang gliding, and rock climbing in which the high risk of injury or death plays a prominent role.
A channel by which the human organism seeks to reduce tension via "optimal stimulation"
Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS)
Zuckerman's standardized test that measures four sub dimensions of sensation seeking: thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility
Birth Order Effects
In high-risk sport, the relationship of birth order to an individual's inclination to engage in dangerous sports
Kroll's Personality Performance Pryamid
A model of the relationship between athletic performance and personality that predicts heterogeneity among athletes at the entry level and homogeneity at the elite level
Modification and attrition thoery
Kroll's explanation of personality similarity in elite athletes as a function of pre selection and modification of traits while proceeding from the entry to the elite level.
The cornerstone of K. Anders Ericsson's theory of exceptional performance, emphasizing the role of hard work over superior innate ability
National Disabled Sports Organizations (DSOs)
Seven sports organizations designed to sponsor athletic events for athletes with varying disabilities
International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
the international organization that spearheads efforts for athletes with disabilities; the IPC is also responsible for conducting the Paralympic Games every 4 years.
An international competition held every 4 years involving 30 sports for deaf athletes
Competitions for athletes with intellectual deficits, cognitive impairment, or limitations in general learning or adaptive behavior.
Sports in which one disabled athletes (partners) participate in sport with higher level Special Olympics competitors
Athlete with disabilites
According to the National Collegiate Athletic Association, an athlete with a major physical or psychological disability.
Athletic events conducted for disabled athletes that take place every 4 years, 3 weeks after the conclusion of the Olympic Games, and that are held at the same venue.
Anderson and Williams theory
A comprehensive model of reaction to sports injury based on interaction of personality
Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
A scale designed to quantify life stresses that has been used in both health and sport psychology research
Affective cycle theory
Hell and Fine's theory that a sport injury produces three responses in athletes: distress, denial, and determined coping.
Cognitive appraisal theory
Brewer's theory that the athlete's response to injury is a function of the interaction between personality and situational factors in producing first an emotional and then a behavioral response.
Sports Inventory for Pain (SIP)
A sport-specific standardized test that attempts to measure athletes' psychological response to pain
The use of a substance or method that is potentially harmful to the health of the athlete that also gives him or her an unfair competitive edge
A win-at-all-costs philosophy concerning athletic competition
World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)
Agency responsible for overseeing the misapplication of banned substances and methods in world sport
Substances, strategies, or treatments that ostensibly enhance sport performance
A substance such as an anabolic steroid or creative that enhances performance by altering metabolic processes
A psychological procedure such as relaxation, hypnosis, or imagery that can be applied to facilitate performance
An actual physical entity such as a skin-tight racing suit that might enhance skating or skiing performance
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS)
Laboratory-derived synthetic analogue of testosterone that may be used to enhance sport performance
A 6-12 week regimen of anabolic steroid use
The use of more than one anabolic steroid at one time
Staggering the pattern of anabolic steroid use to prevent development of tolerance
Using an anabolic steroid at a low dose level followed by a gradual build-up to high dosage, then the return at the end of training to a low dose
A polypharmacutical procure whereby multiple drugs are used to heighten or mask the effects of anabolic steroids
Drugs used to promote the development of natural testosterone to supplement that being taken in by anabolic steroids.
Human chorionic gonadotropin, or human growth hormone (HGH)
A substance used by AAS users to restore testicular size lost in a steroid cycle; also promotes creation of natural or endogenous testosterone
A goal sought by males who workout a lot and want to look strong, muscular, and masculine, ostensibly to impress the females of the species
Androgenic Effects of AAS
Masculinizing affects of using AAS
Anabolic effects of AAS
Tissue building effects associated with steroid use
A naturally occurring substance produced by the kidneys that has become an abused training method in sports because of its oxygenation of muscles and its fatigue-retardant qualities
Laboratory-derived EPO as distinct from that which is naturally produced by the kidneys
Asthma that is produced above and beyond the normal occurrence of asthma that is linked to vigorous exercise
Any substance that will promote urination. Used to manage weight in some sports and can also be used as a masking agent to avoid detection of mother banned substance
Drugs such as epitestosterone, probenecid, and finasteride, high are used to mask the presence of prohibited substnacees
Withdrawing blood from an athlete approximately 1 month prior to competition and then rein fusing it to create enhanced performance
Autologous blood doping
Refers to a transfusion of one's own blood for doping purposes
Homologous blood doping
A doping procedure where transfusing someone else's blood with the same blood type occurs
A procedure for detecting homologous blood transfusions
A device that includes a prosthetic penis and synthetic urine that are manufactured to circumvent drug testing
A WADA prohibited method involving the no therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or gene expression modulation to enhance sport performance
Bay Area Laboratory Cooperative (BALCO)
A California based underground laboratory that manufactured tetrahydrogestrinone (THG), an illegal anabolic androgenic steroid
An illegal anabolic-androgenic steroid manufactured by BALCO and associated with use by dominant athletes such as Barry Bonds and Marion Jones
Steroid compound that are derivatives of testosterone
Substances prohibited by WADA because of their stimulating effect on the physiology of the athlete that, in turn, supposedly enhances performance
Amphetamines, ephedrine, eugeroics
Stimulant drugs manufactured in the laboratory and used to heighten excitability, thus enhancing athletic performance
Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE)
A process whereby an athlete may request an exemption from WADA in cases where he or she can show a valid medical condition that requires medication
A eugeroics compound associated with arousal states similar to those produced by other well-known stimulants
Substances such as heroin, methadone, morphine, and oxycodone, that are banned in certain specified sports
Drugs such as marijuana and hashish that are banned in some designated sports
Compounds banned in certain sports that allow athletes to play despite pain. First line of defense among physicians treating asthmatic athletes
Anti-anxiety drugs used to control tremors and heart palpitations; useful in sports where anxiety reduction, heart rate, and control of tremors are important
An amino acid marketed as a nutritional supplement rather than a drug; thought to improve physical strength
Federation of Inernationale de Football Association (FIFA)
The international governing body for soccer (futbol)
Origins of lacrosse.
Native American Sports Council (NASC).
Native Americans are significantly underrepresented in the world of sport. The NASC, in conjunction with the U.S. Olympic Committee, is undertaking projects aim at getting Native Americans into the mainstream of sports.
Blood extracted, red cells centrifuged out, stored, and injected prior to competition.
Autologous - using own blood.
Homologous - using other's blood.
Fluorescent-Activated Cell Sorting - detects homologous blood transfusions.
Blood doping can create blood "sludge" or thickened blood that's conducive to coronaries, strokes and death.
Naturally occurring substance that is produced by kidney and boosts production of red blood cells.
Increases body's capacity to buffer lactic acid so prominent in fatigued muscles.
Used to treat anemia.
Recombinant EPO: Lab-derived EPO as distinct from that which is naturally produced by the kidneys.
Pinnacle for high risk sport of mountaineering/rock climbing.
Cost $65,000 to climb
Sports with high risk of injury/death, involve anxiety, and sensation seeking.
skydiving, hang gliding, scuba diving, and rock climbing.
Estimated every player will miss 1 game per year due to injury.
65% of former NFL players had sustained an injury requiring them to miss at least eight games or have surgery.
Head injuries are common among NFL players and often lead to serious post-career problems such as dementia or brain disease.
Possibly better due to high altitude training, running to school, training regimens, maize diet.
World record holders for 3000m, 15/20/25km, half marathon, and marathon.
Genetic or biological superiority theories suggest Africans are built to be more athletic.
Sports Inventory for Pain (SIP)
Standardized test that measures psychological response to pain.
Attempt to gauge how different athletes respond psychologically when in pain.
Composed of 25 items arranged in a five-point Likert scale designed to assess which psychological strategy (coping, avoidance, catastrophizing, body awareness) an athlete might choose in an effort to cope psychologically with pain.
Hypothesis that states that survivors of the brutal trip from Africa to US are physically stronger than those who died, creating a superior gene pool that was passed down through generations. Does not account for intelligence, character, guile, or cunning.
Black Social Mobility via Sports
Belief that sports are ticket to success for African Americans because they are underrepresented generally, and are abundant in sports.
Excel most in baseball. Mlb is expanding to attract Hispanic athletes to their teams.
Little psychological research has been conducted on Hispanic athletes. There doesn't appear to be a single article in the pro literature that address the psychology of Hispanic athletes.
WADA prohibited method involving nontherapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or gene expression modulation to enhance sport performance.
World Anti-Doping Agency, est. 1999 in Switzerland.
Oversees misapplication of banned substances/methods in world sport.
Substances/methods banned either at all times, at competition, or in particular sports.
Frequent excuses for failing: faulty equipment, Chinese herbs, Dietary Supplements, Alcohol, birth control, and Stanozolol.
Type A Personality
Aggressive personality that is more at risk for injury.
Type A distance runner's incur more injuries.
Ex: tough-mindedness, anger, aggression, over-confident, arrogance, dominance
Viewed more negatively than African/Anglo Americans by commentators.
Seen as hard workers, conformists, self-disciplined.
Native born Asians/Asn. Am.'s becoming more prominent in baseball, basketball, figure skating, golf, judo fighting, and tennis.
Accounting for Exceptional Performance
1. Genetic/Biological Explanations
- Body type.
- Lung capacity, double jointed, more sweat, cool easier, rhythm.
2. Social/Cultural Influences
- Sport opportunity structure (minorities denied access to opportunities), stacking (peripheral positioning of minorities).
3. Psychological Explanations
- POMS: high on vigor
- F-Scale: more authoritarian.
- Locus of Control: higher on chance.
- SMAS: mental prep responsibility given to coach/staff.
Sports Injury Among Females
Girls are more prone to knee injures (from soccer).
Bay Area Laboratory Cooperative, est. 1990's in San Francisco, created designer steroid compound.
Founder: Victor Conte.
Provided drugs under the label Scientific Nutrition for Advanced Conditioning (SNAC).
Produce tetrahydrogestrinone (associated w/Bonds and Marion Jones).
Competitions for athletes with intellectual/cognitive impairment or learning/adaptive behavior limitations.
Every 2 years.
Unified Sports: nondisabled athletes participate in sports with higher level Special Olympics competitors
Social Activist/Professor at Cal Berkeley
"The white athletes who do participate in sports operate at a psychological disadvantage because they believe blacks to be inherently superior as athletes. Thus, the white man has become the chief victim of his own lie."
Death/injury caused by thermal turbulence, strong wind, asymmetric deflation, closeness to ground, rotor problems, landing outside LZ, poor takeoff, stalling, lack of instruction, obstacles in LZ.
Single white males in mid-20's from every walk of life, but mostly students.
Death rates exceed Canadian suicides and U.S. youth automobile fatalities.
Some psychologist believe that an athlete visualizes themselves recovering from an injury or succeeding in their sport, these things are more likely to come true.
Event for athletes/artists/musicians who are gay and can compete at high level.
Beating the Drug Test System
Whizzinator - prosthetic penis and synthetic urine.
Using alternate substances such as IGF-1 (Deer Antler Spray)
Aid in sports performance enhancement: mechanical (gear, prosthesis), psychological (relaxation, hypnosis, visualization, imagery), physiological (steroids, stimulants, EPO, creatine).
Predicted 90% players in NBA will suffer injuries.
90% of all athletes suffered from injury of sort in 1988-97.
Ankle sprains were most common.
Greatest number of days missed because of patellofemoral inflammation.
2x larger injury rate than NCAA because of longer schedule and older athletes.
Selective breeding among slaves en route to US paired with survival of the fittest is best explanation for African American athletic superiority.
High risk sport that causes arousal/anxiety and is sought by sensation seekers.
Averages 30 deaths/year in the U.S.
Experience heightened arousal, elevated anxiety and fear associated with jumping.
Elite vs Near-Elite Athletes
Olympic athletes such as figure skaters, gymnasts, track and field athletes, weight lifters, and wrestlers have been the most common sources of data on elite performers.
Elite athletes are more commonly distinguished by self-confidence and concentration on the task at hand.
Performing at a level that is close to what they regard as their maximum potential is a prominent trait of elite performers.
High risk sport sought by those seeking thrill, experience, inhibition, or escape from boredom.
Ice, Snow, Rain, Mental and Physical fatigue, Cognitive disorientation, and snow blindness are all dangerous factors of Rock Climbing
Amino acid that supplies energy to all cells, especially muscle.
Not seen as a drug; used to improve physical strength.
50% produced in liver, kidney, and pancreas.
50% ingested in daily dietary intake.
Not banned; unproven results.
Baseball usually has a low percentage of injured athletes.
Most common include Tommy John ligament tears, shoulder injuries, knee injuries, and head injuries.
Events for disabled athletes every 4 years, 3 weeks after Olympics at same venue.
Usually involve competitors who are amputees or paraplegics.
Blacks in Baseball
First African American baseball player was John Bud Fowler in 1872; after Fowler came Moses Fleetwood Walker who experienced extreme racism.
After Jim Crow, African men were set back in America until Jackie Robinson debuted for the Brooklyn Dodgers, 1945
Frank Robinson was the first black manager in the MLB, 1975
Baseball in the Caribbean
The influence of baseball in the caribbean has given men in Latin American countries hope of one day making the big leagues and escaping poverty.
High risk sport sought by those seeking thrill, experience, inhibition, or escape from boredom.
Dangers include: sea creatures, panic in the water (anxiety), equipment malfunction, and wetsuits will sometimes increase anxiety because of body temp.
-2-3 million people w/physical disability take part in a sport or fitness activity
-NCAA recognizes these students as "impaired student-athletes" and are defined as "those who are confined to a wheelchair, who are deaf, blind, or missing a limb; those who have only one set of organs...", etc.
-U.S. Olympics recognizes seven DSO's: American Athlete Association of the Deaf (AAAD), Dwarf Athletic Association of America (DAAA), Disabled Sports USA (DSUSA), Wheelchair Sports USA (WSUSA), Special OlympicsInternational (SOI), United Association for Blind Athletes (UABA), and the U.S. Cerebral Palsy Athletic Association (USCPAA).
-Amputee: Person w/total or partial loss of at least one limb
-Cerebral Palsy: Person w/non-progressive brain damage that affects muscle control, balance, or coordination
-Intellectual Disability: Person w/significant intellectual impairment. Athletes suspended
-Wheelchair: must have at least 10% loss of lower limb function
-Vision-Impaired: Visibility difficulties from legal to total blindness
-Les Autres: Other disabilities
- Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (AAS); builds tissue and produces a masculinizing effect.
-Commonly Used AAS: Anavar, winstrol, anadrol, susanon, maxibolin, deca-durabolin, dianabol, halotestin, durabolin, and testosterone cypionate
-Nicknames for AAS: Arnolds, asteriods, shrinkers, gear, gym candy, iron brew, juice, liquid gold, produce ball, pump up pills, red rocket, riods, and sloop.
-Side Effects for men often include baldness, prostate changes, gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, and sterility.
-Side Effects for women often include breasts reduction, clit enlargement, hair increase, menstrual irregularities, premature hair loss, deepening of voice, and jaw reconstruction.
-Side effects that affect both genders include acne, brittle connective tissue, headaches, hypertension, liver disease, and strokes.
You can take AAS by mouth or injection.
1. Dirty - high androgenic to anabolic ratio
2. Clean - high anabolic to androgenic ratio
3. Cycling - Drugs taken in 6-12 week cycles
4. Plateauing - Getting on and off various AAS compounds to confound the testing authorities.
5. Stacking - Taking more than one AAS
6. Pyramiding - Taking low AAS dose, then high, then back down to low dosages.
7. Arraying - Taking an array of AAS, HGH, Diuretics, etc...
8. Shotgunning - Taking AAS on a hit or miss basis
Accounting for Exceptional Performance
Type A Personality
Hard driving and aggressive personalities would be more at risk for injury. Research backs this up. Fields study showed that distance runners had more injuries than runners scoring low on Type A assessment. Other studies of constructs related to Type A also found that injury proneness to be high in athletes scoring high on toughmindness, high anger, and dominance
Sports Inventory For Pain
A sport-specific standardized test that attempts to measure athletes' psychological responses to pain. Began by borrowing inventories such as MPQ of Melzack, the coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSO). Final SIP includes 25 items arranged in a 5 point Likert Scale designed to asses which strategy (cognitive, coping, avoidance, catastrophizing, body awareness) an athlete might choose in an effort to cope psychologically with pain. differs with gender, injury potential and type of sport athlete. Greater in coping and somatic awareness. Bartholomew doubted the scale into what it is now known as the SIP-15.
NFL states the every player in league will miss at least one game per year bc of injury. 65% of former NFL players had sustained an injury that required them to miss at least 8 games or have surgery. A lot of retired players have horrible bodies and are losing ability to simply function.
Sports Injury Among Females
Knee injuries in soccer are the highest and lowest in baseball. Of sports requiring surgery - 60% involve knee.
90% of athletes in basketball suffered an injury or illness. Most common ankle sprains (9.4%) patella femoral inflammation (8.1%) Lumbar strains (5%) knee sprains (2.3%). greets number of days missed for injury was from patello-femoral inflammation. twice as many injuries in NBA than collegiate level.
Maverick Professor and Political activist. . He grew up poor in East St. Louis Illinois. Ran track and field. Received a bachelors from San Jose and Masters from Cornell. Wrote The Revolt of the Black Athlete. Studied Malcolm X. He urged black track athletes to engage in the now famous Black Power Salute on the winners stand in Mexico City - Purpose of rebellion was to draw attention to racial problems. Black experience was like living on an old slave planation - whites were your friends in practice and games but wanted to beat you up outside the sport. "White athletes who do participate in sports operate at a physiological disadvantage because they believe blacks to be inherently superior as athletes." "The likelihood that a black youth will be struck by lightening while walking down the street is greater than the chance of them being a part of professional sport"
Not much impact on sports. Lacrosse owes its origin to the tribes in the Great Lakes area and along the Saint Lawrence River. Native American Sports Council (NASC) promotes athletic excellence and wellness in Native American communities through sports and wellness activities - work done with olympic committee. 8 positions in 1996 olympics. Little research done.
Black Social Mobility Via Sports
Black Professionals Versus Blacks in Sports
1200 blacks are in professional athletes. There are 15 times more black physicians and 12 times more black attorneys than black professional athletes.
First African Americans arrived in North America in 1619 at the English Colony in Jamestown Virginia. Initially not slaves but were servants who were freed after end of servitude. Most became slaves on informal basis but soon formal through legislation. Formal enslavement began in mid-1600s and ended with the Emancipation of Proclamation of 1862. Recreation varied among the personality and philosophy of planation owners but typically included wrestling, boxing, foot races, cockfights, hunting, fishing, boat races, and dancing, "Patting juba": rhythmic patting or clapping of the hands as a substitute for musical instruments when none were available. Pre Civil War recreation was tied to rural life and work circumstances.
Elite Versus Near-Elite Athletes
Baseball in the Caribbean
Most dominant sport for them. 100 meter dash - all 32 of men's finalists in 4 recent Olympics were sprinters of West African heritage. 797 of the top 800 times in that event were posted of West African descent.
For distance, Kenyan men hold world records for the 3000 meter race, the 15, 20, 25 kilometer road races and the half and full marathon.
Kenyan women own half of the top ten times in the marathon and world records in the 10, 20, and 25 kilometers races.
Kenyan - Kalenjin tribes from Rift Valley of Kenya - population of 3 million.
Mexicans, cubans, puerto ricans. Term hispanic is more common than latinos and latinas which refer to Caribbean and south cali etc. Population is 41 million and growing. Most impact in baseball. NBA (0) NHL (7) NFL (14) MLB (112). A lot of baseball players in Florida. 16% hispanics on opening day. Dominicans have population of 8-9 million and supply 12% and 49% to major and minor leagues respectively. Esteban Bellan, cuban, first Hispanic to play major league in 1871. Little research has been done on Hispanic athletes; no articles. Described positively by sport commentators. Barriers into professionalism are expenses and professional teams tend to recruit from colleges and Hispanics are underrepresented, and absence of role models
Blacks in Baseball
First player - John (Bud) Fowler played for New Castle in Pennsylvania in 1872. He played with his legs encased with wooden guards because whites tended to purposely cleat him when sliding into second.
Moses Walker first to play in major leagues and was soon joined by brother Weldy Walker 1883 played for Toledo Ohio. Members from Virginia sent letters threatening the team to play them with consequences of mobbing them.
Was integrated and then segregated until 1945 when Jackie Robinson joined Montreal Royales and then major league team Brooklyn Dodgers.
Hypothesis that survival of the fitted and selective breeding among slaves while in route to the US from Africa and thereafter is the best explanation for this athletic superiority. Survivors were stronger than the ones who died off thereby creating a superior gene pool among those who survived. Doesn't take into account of intelligence, character or cunning into account in surviving so it exaggerates the role of physical variables
Peripheral positioning of minority players in sports such as football and baseball.
Examples: Many QBs are white where many wide receivers are black. Many pitchers are white where many outfielders are black. Whites are put at more CENTRAL positions whereas blacks are put are more PERIPHERAL positions
Self paced activities
Sport activities such as pitching a baseball or games such s bowling or golf that focus on a players self-initiated tasks. More whites.
Sport activities such as hitting a baseball or sports such as boxing in which the individual player reacts to another players initiated task. More blacks.
Sport opportunity structure
A form of discrimination whereby minorities are denied access to the opportunities for success in athletics
No physiological viewpoint. Sabo explains that Asians are viewed more negatively than blacks by sport commentators. Asians are portrayed as obsessive hard workers, conformists and extremely self-disciplined. Also represented as unemotional or reluctantly emotional. Growing in numbers in baseball, basketball, figure skating, golf and tennis.
Some committed suicide. others waited till they retired from their sport to "come out" Commissioner Stern good defender for gays. A sport cultural event for athletes, artists, and musicians that was created expressly for gay athletes to compete at a high level - Dr. Tom Waddell and supported by GLBT organization. Takes place every 4 years at selected venues. GAYMES. Weak research done. Krane explains that lesbians display low self esteem, low confidence, diminished self satisfaction and higher levels of stress - homonegativism. Anderson says there are acceptance issues but not discrimination.
Special Olympics (2)
Competitions for athletes with intellectual deficits, cognitive impairment or limitations in general learning or adaptive behavior. local to elite level. First games where in Chicago, sanctioned by IOC. Founded by Eunice Kennedy Shriver. Unified Sports - non disabled athletes (partners) participate with higher level Special Olympics competitors (sports based rather than disability based)
Disabled Athletes (2)
43 million people in US have physical disability. 2-3 million participate in sports. NCAA - "impaired student athletes" confined to a wheelchair, deaf, blind or missing a limb, one set of organs, behavioral, emotional or psychological disorders.
National Disabled Sports Organizations (DSOs) 7 of these. goals is educate rest of population and provide meaningful sports and fitness activities. International Paralympic Committee (IPC) recognizes 6: Amputee, Cerebral Palsy, Intellectual Disability, Wheelchair, Vision-Impaired and Les Autres (dwarfism). Research has focused on anxiety, mood states and self-actualization.
Athletic events conducted for disabled athletes that take place every 4 years, 3 weeks after the conclusion of the olympic games, and that are held at the same venue. Used to be called the Stoke Mandeville Games after a hospital. First in rome. Athletes with intellectual disabilities do not have recognition by paralympic games. Athlete with disability: NCCA - athlete with major physical or psychological disability.
Risk Sport (3)
Tangen-Foster and Lathen asked 120 physician education departments - High risk sports include the 4: parachuting (96%), hang gliding(92%), rock climbing (64%) and scuba diving (32%). Pedersen asked 444 men and women to rate 8 risk activities - motorcycle racing, cliff jumping, hang gliding, skydiving, bungee jumping, rock climbing, scuba diving, and skiing
78 deaths annually. Most underwater deaths are due to panic. State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Scuba wet suit can increase anxiety. Scuba divers are lower on trait anxiety, more adventurous, more internal and more masculine in sex role orientation. State and trait anxiety not related. No relation between performance and anxiety on simple tasks, but there was with complex tasks.
The United States of Hang Gliding and Paragliding Association (USHPA) - 1.33 deaths annually per 1000 members. Leg and ankle fractures are most common injuries. Strong correlation between experience and accidents. Little physiological research here. Motivations: single white guys in 20s, mostly students, get to activity through a friend, being a member of subculture, most don't view it as dangerous, its a "rush"
Rock Climbing (2)
Alpinism: walking, hiking and climbing mountains. Ice, snow, rain, wind, mental and physical fatigue and cognitive disorientation, and snow blindness - safety determents. Research has focused on sensation seeking, extraversion, mood states and anxiety. Eyseneck Personality Questionnaire showed climbers to be higher on extraversion and tough-mindness and low in neuroticism and anxiety. Marynard study showed to reduce anxiety - focus on intervention on the dominant anxiety mode. Found escalation in cognitive anxiety and lowering in self confidence.
Mount Everest (2)
A true test of limits to which the human body and spirit can be pushed is found among those who have tried to climb this, tallest peak. Fear of being out of control in a dangerous place. Predominately anglo, male professionals.
USPA United States parachuting Association said that there were 30 deaths a year with a high of 44 in 1998 and a low of 21 in 2004. Equipment failure, lost track of altitude, collision of jumpers. Westman and Bjornsig study said that student jumpers were at the highest risk bc of unstable parachute activation and line entanglement and unintentional water landings. 35 countries show that 1 death per 65,000 jumps each year. 1000 more are killed in boating accidents and die from bee stings than from skydiving. Even highly trained die often. Assumptions of stereotypical skydivers are sensation seekers and do it for fear displacement but data shows otherwise.
Skydiving (2) Arousal/Anxiety
Elevations in heart rate, galvanic skin response, respiration rate, anxiety and self reports of fear are in both novice and experience parachutists. Powell and Verner used State-Anxiety Inventory to asses anxiety - 1st time parachutists had high fear, heart change rate and state and trait anxiety - well below mean of novice on trait anxiety. low anxiety is associated with better performance than high anxiety. They show good training methods for reducing anxiety and deaths. MacLean found there to be difference between experienced and novice anxiety but found no difference between them on Neuroticism and Extraversion scales of the Eysneck Personality Inventory (EPI).
Skydiving (2) Other Personality Variables
Sensation seekers, spontaneous dissociates and stress seekers. Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) expressed high needs for achievement, dominance, exhibition, courage, and heterosexual expression. Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) showed mild elevations on the Mania and Psychopathic Deviate Scales - highly motivated and unconventional individuals. The sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire showed members to be intelligent, happy go lucky, expedient, and not influenced by others.
A channel by which the human organism seeks to reduce tension via "optimal stimulation" - individual variations in the need for stimulus reduction.
Sensation seeking scale (SSS)
Zuckerman. 1 Thrill and Adventure Seeking. 2 Experience Seeking. 3 Disinhibition. 4 Boredom Susceptibility. Elite rock climbers were higher in Sensation seeking, Thrill and Adventure seeking, and Experience seeking than normatives.
Birth Order effects
In high-risk sport, the relationship of birth order to an individuals inclination to engage in dangerous sports. First borns are less likely to participate in high risk sports. second and third borns are more likely to. More males than females.
Kroll's Personality Performance Pyramid
Model of the relationship between athletic performance and personality that predicts heterogeneity among athletes at the entry level and homogeneity at the elite level.
Modification and attrition theory
Kroll's explanation of personality similarity in elite athletes as a function of preselection and modification of traits while proceeding from the entry to the elite level. Personality has been modified through experience.
Enjoyment - 1. Social and life opportunities 2. Perceived Competence 3. Social Recognition of Competence 4. The act of skating.
Stress- 1. Negative Aspects of Competition 2. Negative Significant-Other Relationships 3. Demands or Costs of Skating 4. Personal Struggles 5. Traumatic experiences
- Competitive anxiety and self doubt. Financing, media and time constraints and demands. High performance expectations. and Significant other relationship issues.
Better gymnasts were more confident. Had a little more anxiety prior to competition.
Role of mental imagery and visualization when preparing for competition.
Olympic weight lifters
Is a relationship between birth order effects and achievement motivation. First borns had stronger approach to success and laterborns avoided failure. Firstborns were more internal, though firstborns were more external than those born later. Elite weight lifters were more psychologically healthy and more motivated to compete than non elites.
Winning - mental game plan, confident and aroused. Losing - deviated from mental game plan, less confident, and negative thoughts.
Mixed athlete samples
elite athletes believe self confidence to be big in determining success. consistency. See themselves as the source and focus of success. they fine constructive ways for dealing with stress.
self confidence and concentration on the task at hand.
Social Readjustment Rating Scale
designed to qualify life stresses that have been used in both health and sport psychology research
Affective cycle theory
Heil and Fine's theory that a sport injury produces three responses in athletes: distress, denial and determined coping.
Cognitive Appraisal theory
Brewer's theory that athletes response to injury is a function of the interaction between personality and situational factors in producing first an emotional and then a behavioral response.
A win at all costs philosophy concerning athletic competition.
Victor Conte, major producer of designer steroids. Supplied Barry Bonds. A cali based underground lab that manufactured tetrahydrogestrine (THG) an illegal anabolic-androgenic steroid. Was founded to provide natural supplements for athletes under Scientific Nutrition for Advanced Conditioning (SNAC). It did best when starting to produce this steroid (THG). Its called s designer steroid: bc they are steroid compounds derived from testosterone. Cat race: athlete takes steroid --> people who create tests find a test that detects that steroid --> new drug that is not detectable is produced --> race continues.
A WADA prohibited method involving the non therapeutic use of cells, genes and genetic elements or gene modulation to enhance sport performance. "coming of the cyber athlete". To WADA any uses of cells, genes, genetic elements and modulation of gene expression for enhancement is prohibited Guy named Sweeney was trying to develop procedures that would help stave off the muscular atrophy and wasting that goes with die seas like muscular dystrophy or the decline with normal aging. He found that gene therapy could increase mouse muscle - leading people to beg for his secret.
Beating the Drug System
Adding substances to urine samples, switching samples- lead to no more privacy in giving urine samples. Whizzinator" a device that includes a fake penis and synthetic urine that are manufactured to circumvent drug testing.
Blood Doping/Epo (2)
.Withdrawing blood from an athlete 1 month prior to competition and then rein fusing it to create enhanced performance. Theory is red blood cells carry more of the oxygen so essential to the muscle tissue involved in endurance sports. Autologous is using ones own blood for later use and homologous is using another persons blood for later use (same blood type). Fluorescent activated cell sorting is a test that can test homo but not auto. Dangers are risks of infection and possibility of disease transmission. New technology of EPO replaced blood doping around 1990//Erythropoietin:: naturally occurring substance that is produced by the kidney and is important bc it boosts the production of red blood cells which is why it appeals to blood doping athletes. Increases bodies capacity to buffer lactic acid that is in fatigued muscles. Used to treat anemia.
Agency responsible for overseeing the misapplication of banned substances and methods in world sport. World Anti-Doping Agency created in 1999 through IOC initiatives and is headquartered in Switzerland. Rep in Olympic sector as well as in private sports sector. Major player in doping control business and operates 33 testing labs world wide. Los Angeles does the most test. Next largest site is in Germany. Published a listing of substances and methods that are prohibited - 1. Substances ( anabolic agents, erythropoietin, human growth hormone, beta-agonists and diuretics) and Methods (Blood doping, tampering with samples and gene doping) prohibited at all times. 2 Substances and Methods prohibited in competition (stimulants, narcotics, cannabiniods and glucocorticosteriods. 3. Substances prohibited in particular sports ( alcohol and beta blockers). Wada had trouble with detecting EPO illegal use because naturally occurring EPO may cause an elevation in amount found in tests, thus causing innocent athletes to test positive.
Substances and methods aimed at performance enhancement
Substances, strategies, or treatments that ostensibly enhance sport performance above and beyond effects of normal training. Aids may be used in training or competition depending on situation.
Designed to increase physical power by enhancement of metabolic processes. Substances like anabolic steroid or creatine.
include processes such as relaxation, hypnosis and mental imagery - generate positive mental state in athlete.
Designed to improve energy efficient through better engineered sports gear. Example: skin tight racing suit that might enhance skating or skiing performance.
MLB showed that 5% - 7% use steroids but players typically think more like 50% at least use them. there is growing evidence in steroid use and connective tissue and joint damage. Players start out great and then few years after, they have horrible joint damage. Golf and Tennis debate on adopting drug policies as they believe these sports are more about touch than power.
Lab derived synthetic analogue of testosterone (male sex hormone) that may be used to enhance sport performance. "There is no such thing as a pure anabolic steroid, one that posses the tissue building properties of the AAS minus the masculine effects" May be taken orally , injection or through creams and gels. Creams and gels help athletes avoid detection better than the there procedures. Taken in cycles of 6-12 weeks. AAS has been around since 1935 and was introduced in to sports around 1950s by Soviet bloc weight lifters. "Operation Raw Deal" - China and Mexico raided by DEA.
use of more than one compound concurrently. Use of more than one anabolic steroid at one time.
Staggering of drugs; getting off one and onto another to prevent tolerance for a particular compound.
Athlete moves from low dose at beginning of cycle to high dose and then back down to a low dose towards the end.
Polypharmaceutical procedure whereby multiple drugs are used to heighten or mask the effects of AAS. Drugs include in array are Anti-estrogen: Drugs used to promote the development of natural testosterone to supplement that being taken in my AAS. and Human growth hormone: A substance used by AAS users to restore testicular size lost in steroid cycle; also promotes creation of natural testosterone.
Side effects with AAS
Males: baldness, swelling of breasts and shrinkage of penis. Females: deepening of voice, increase of facial hair, breast shrinkage, enlargement of clot, premature hair lose, and menstrual irregularities For both genders, acne and negative effects on serum lips, liver and reproductive effects are strong. More concerns include cardio functioning, immune system and connective tissue brittleness.
A goal sought by males who work out a lot and want to look strong, muscular and masculine to impress the ladies. half man half god greek image.
Androgenic effects of AAS
Masculinizing affects of using AAS
"dirty" - refers to testosterone cypionate with a 1:1 rations
Anabolic effects of AAS
Tissue building effects associated with steroid use. "clean" refers to Anavar with 13:1 ratio
Drawbacks to AAS
negative effects on reproductive system, virilization and feminization, cardiovascular and hematologic functioning, hepatic disturbances, musculoskeletal development, dermatological conditions, risk of AIDS and behavioral problems. Becomes an excuse of aggression.
naturally occurring substance that is produced by the kidney and is important bc it boosts the production of red blood cells which is why it appeals to blood doping athletes. Increases bodies capacity to buffer lactic acid that is in fatigued muscles. Used to treat anemia.
Lab derived EPO whereas naturally EPO is made by kidney. May causes blood "sludge" thickened blood that is conductive to coronaries, strokes and even death. Some have died in sleep.
Human Growth hormone
effects on muscle mass, fat free mass and strength makes it hard to detect. Used as drug "cocktail" during training periods prior to competition when testing is likely. 2004 test for athens olympics but since then nothing by WADA.Side effects include Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease which involves brain deterioration and death . Expensive can cost athlete 750 a month.
Beta 2 agonists
Drugs such as formoterol, salbutamol, salmeteral and terbutaline that are prescribed for asthma but have been abused by some athletes. EIA Exercised induced asthma which is produced above and beyond normal occurrence of asthma that is linked to vigorous exercise. WADA bans these.
any substance that will promote urine. Used to manage weight in some sports and can also be used as masking agent to avoid detection of another banned substance
Drugs that are used to mask the presence of prohibited substances.
Substances prohibited by WADA bc their stimulating effect on the physiology of the athlete that enhances performance. Examples are amphetamines, ephedrine and eugeroics - they heighten excitability.
Therapeutic use exemption TUE
process whereby an athlete may request an exemption from WADA in cases where he or she can show valid medical condition that requires medication.
A eugeroic compound associated with arousal states similar to those produces by other more well-known stimulants
Substances such as heroin, methadone, morphine, and oxycodone that are banned in specified sports - pain killing or dulling properties.
Drugs such as weed and hashish that are banned in sports
Compounds banned in certain sports that allow athletes to play despite pain. first line of defense among physicians treating asthmatic athletes.
anti anxiety drugs used to control tremors and heart palpitations - useful in ports where anxiety reduction, heart rate and control tremors are important.
an amino acid marketed as a nutritional supplement rather than drug, thought to improve physical strength. 50% is produced in liver kidneys and pancreas and 50% is ingested in dairy intake. Used by males in baseball football sprinters weight lifters who want a better look. Natural supplement and is not banned.
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