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AP Euro, Unit 4: Intellectual, Economic, and Social Developments
Terms in this set (44)
experimental observation and mathematics slowly became part of the European worldview, when previously the theories of Aristotle were accepted.
proposed heliocentric theory, which resulted in lots of backlash from especially Protestants, who read the Bible literally. Also disliked by the religious because it left no place for a 'heaven' unlike Aristotle.
In the Principia, synthesized the knowledge of the Sci Rev into laws of physics, such as universal gravitation (gravity proportional to mass and proximity).
Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler
Brahe had extensive observations of the stars, which student Kepler used to determine laws of planetary motion (eg elliptical orbits).
discovered blood circulation
empirical method of gathering data: controlled experimentation to reach conclusions. The scientific method developed from Bacon's empiricism and Descartes' rationalism.
key tenets: natural science and reason should be used to understand all aspects of life (faith isn't enough), progress (humanity was capable of improving, as opposed to just emulating the Greeks/Romans), scientific method was capable of reaching understanding. Was spread through uncertainty of previous worldview caused by Newton's demolition of Aristotelian sciences, religious skepticism (was religious unity worth going to war), travel journals challenging assumptions, tabula rasa.
philosophe, religious intolerance led to inhuman action, praised English balance of power, strong monarchy/gov't was necessary, believed in God as a more indirect figure/concept than what Christianity taught.
Separation of powers
Developed by Montesquieu, says that despotism could be avoided by separating executive, judicial, and legislative power.
Bernard de Fortenelle
Wrote discoveries of scientific revolution is an entertaining and accessible way.
Locke, says that humans aren't born with basic ideals, but are blank slates that are developed through interaction
edited by Denis Diderot, contained all knowledge, exalted science and criticized religion. Reasons led to increased knowledge which led to increased happiness.
aggressively atheist, believed humans are machines determined by outside forces, disagreed with the idea of free will
advocated for criminal reformation, where punishments were proportional to offense, equal regardless of status, and enough to deter crime but not excessive. Opposed torture and capital punishment.
rationalism and civilization destroyed and corrupted the individual. Developed the Social Contract, where the general will (common interests of the people, not necessarily what they want, but what is good for them) is upheld.
Sci Rev causes
permanent universities allowed science to specialize, Renaissance humanism spread math and gave patronage to scientists, navigational problems provided incentive, improved instrumentation allowed for advances
Sci Rev effects
religion: initially - Catholic Church less hostile b/c Protestants read the Bible literally. later - Protestant countries more tolerant while Counter Reformation made Church hostile. Rise of international scientific community as a social group.
furthered heliocentricism, as well as further refuting Aristotle by proving inertia, Jupiter's moon, craters on the moon. These discoveries contradicted Aristotle/religion's view that the universe above the earth was perfection. Under patronage of the Medicis.
social gatherings monitored by hostesses (acceptable way for women to participate in Enlightenment) where thinkers could speak freely, as the government censored a lot. Madame Geoffrin held famous salons.
early feminist who argues for women's education and equality in The Vindication of the Rights of Women.
educated scientists who published under own name and was excluded from Royal Society due to sex. Advocated for a focus on more empirical, practical knowledge.
some monarchs tried to rule under Enlightenment principles, where reforms were believed to come from the top, not the bottom
Frederick II the Great of Prussia
son of the Soldiers' King, gained huge amounts of territory by attacking Maria Theresa, furthered Enlightenment culture (religious tolerance, banning torture, fair trials), although still condoned serfdom and inequality towards Jews.
Catherine the Great of Russia
brought Western culture to Russia (architecture, was patron to philosophes thus westernizing the thinking of nobility). Some domestic reform (education, restrict torture, some religious toleration) but Pugachev's Rebellion meant she kept cracking down on the peasants. Expanded territory.
Maria Theresa (Austria)
after defeat in the War of Austrian Succession, increased state strength through centralizing bureaucracy and making taxes universal. Attempted to regain lost territory in the Seven Years' War.
Joseph II (Austria)
continued reforms of mother (Maria), religious toleration for Protestants and Jews, at one point abolished serfdom, but was reinstated
Louis XV, Louis XVI
nobility were able to increase power over the king by gaining right to evaluate royal decrees, and constantly checked their efforts to impose taxes on the nobility.
feminine artistic style (pastels, sentimental, cupids, mythological, depicted nobility at play, decorative) that was criticized by serious Enlightenment thinkers as being frivolous.
reading became an individual leisure activity as opposed to a group one. The market for non-religious books in particular rose.
War of Austrian Succession
Prussia attacked Austria when Maria Theresa ascended, leading to a huge increase in territory.
Seven Years' War (1756-1763)
huge conflict involving many European powers where Maria Theresa attempted to regain lost land and failed, no huge change in colonial holdings either.
adapted in Holland and England. enclosure movement (no communal land, but fenced off strips - increased landless peasants - proletariat- but increased creativity), more sophisticated crop rotation, drainage to reclaim land
merchants provided raw materials to peasants who spun it into the final product. Advanced mercantilism by decreasing outside reliance.
Navigation Acts and Mercantilism in England (now GB)
Navigation Acts: goods imported to Britain must be on British ships. England took over the Dutch (and French) by developing a vast trading empire through shipping industry, trade, and colonies. Through War of Spanish Succession, gained control of slave trade from Spain (huge amount of slaves transported at this time), who provided cheap labor. Through Seven Years' War, gained many colonies.
Treaty of Paris (1763)
Complete English victory over France, where mainland NA and India went to England, and Spain gained Louisiana.
Life in English colonies
Colonies provided outlet for surplus population. Colonists had high quality of life because of access to free and unlimited land
Invisible Hand of the Marketplace
Adam Smith, increased criticism against mercantilism, instead advocating for free trade and no monopolies because acting out of self interest provides best means for economic equality.
favorable balance of trade (more exports than imports) because limited amount of wealth, so must accumulate it. Command economy (controlled by gov't because guidance needed to maximize wealth). Colonies increased pool of raw materials to create self sufficiency and created market for exported goods. As within Europe trade stagnated, trade with colonies flourished.
Seven Years' War - Prussia/England allies against France/Austria (previously England/Austria v France/Prussia)
Revival of Spanish Colonization
Increase in economic prosperity from more silver from colonies and new king overhauling finances and enforcing royal authority.
common action of members of a community to pressure people into marriage, few bastards because they would be an economic burden. Strong sense of community ideals.
Illegitimacy Explosion (1750-1850)
fewer men were willing to marry women they impregnated, leading to many illegitimate children. This was because increased population meant many transient workers, so couldn't settle down in family life. Also, transient lifestyle and increased independence from cottage industry (sons no longer reliant on fathers' land) reduced pressure of community controls.
practice of allowing children to die when insufficient resources. Because of high death rates, parents were emotional indifferent of children, but this neglect only increased change of dying (cyclical pattern).
formal eduction (primary school) increased, leading to increased literacy. Was fueled by the Protestant and Catholic Reformations who wanted to increase literacy to better teach ideals, as well as the Protestant belief that everyone should read the Bible. Prussia led the way in developing universal education.
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