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Aerobic cellular respiration

a cell uses oxygen and the potential energy in the bonds of glucose to generate ATP


breaking sugar; glucose splits into two 3-carbon molecules of pyruvate


the product of glycolysis

Krebs cycle

releases all of the carbon in pyruvate as CO2

Electron transport chain

transfers energy-rich electrons from NADH to FADH2 through a series of cytochromes and other membrane proteins

ATP synthase

enzyme that forms a channel in the membrane, releasing the protons and using their potential energy to phosphorylate ADP

Intermembrane compartment

the area between the two membranes of the mitochondrion


the area enclosed by the highly folded inner mitochondrial membrane

Substrate-level phosphorylation

a high-energy donor molecule (PGAL) physically transfers a phosphate group to ADP

Acetyl CoA

the compound that enters the Krebs cycle

Chemiosmotic phosphorylation

protons move down their gradient through ATP synthase channels back into the matrix and ADP is phosphorylated to ATP

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