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high concentrations in mucous membranes ( lining respiratory passages and gastrointestinal tract, saliva, tears).


''minute amounts" in the blood.


Associated with allergic reactions. Found in lungs, skin, mucous membranes


All body fluids- protects against bacterial and viral infections.


blood & lymph fluid


non-specific defense. Humans are affected by certain pathogens/as are animals.


disease causing agent

fluid is kept from accumlating in tissue space by

lymphatic vessels transport excess fluid away from the interst. spaces in most tissues & return it to the bloodstream.

the structure of a lymphatic vessel is most similar to that of an...


the two collecting ducts that drain the lymphatic trunks are the

right & left sub clavian veins

after lymph leaves the collecting ducts it enters the _____ and becomes part of the ______.

venous system & plasma

the primary functions of lymph include returning proteins to _____

the bloodstream

as a result stephanies arm becomes...

obstructed from drainage of all upper limbs causing edema

the region of a lymph node through which blood vessels and nerves pass is called the


cells in a lymph node that engulf and destroy damaged cells, foreign substances and cellular debris are...


henry has a cut on high thigh that becomes infected. the lympth nodes in his ______ enlarge.

inguinal region

T lymphocytes mature in the thymus in response to.....

epithelial cells in the thymus secrete protein hormones called thymosins, which stimulate the maturation of t-cells.

the mononuclear phagocytic system includes...

Monocytes, Neutrophils, & Macrophages

interferon is a group of hormonelike peptides that cells produce in response to...

viruses/tumor cells

the most active phagocytic cells in circulating blood are...

monocytes & neutrophils

low-grade fever is an effective defense for short periods of time because it...

has phagocyte cells that attack harder when the temp rises. Therefor a quick low-grade fever will be more affective then a long term.

an immune system response that is slower but more specific for the pathogen is the...

Adaptive (specific) Defense

a transplant recipients body rejects a transplanted organ because her ______ does not match that of the donor closely enough.

tissues & antigens

in HIV infection, reverse transcriptase

Catalyzes the construction of a DNA strand. The initial viral DNA strand replicates to dorm a double helix and then enters the cells nucleus and insets into a chromosome.

Lymph is _____ that has entered a lymphatic capillary.

tissue fluid

_____ is accumulation of tissue fluid in the intersit. spaces.


lymph nodes are centers for the production of _______, which act against foreign particles carried in lymph.


lymph nodes are grouped throughout the body except in ..

the CNS

the foreign or "non self" substances that trigger immune system responses are called...


a substance that can stimulate a primary immune response but is unable to produce the symptoms of the disease is called a


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