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91 terms

Chapter 18 LOM

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Adrenal cortex
Outer section of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones
Adrenal medulla
Inner section of each adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
Ovaries
Located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and pregesterone secretion
Pancreas
Located behind the stomach ;also contains cells that are exocrine in function. They secrete enzymes, via a duct into the small intestine to aid digestion.
Parathyroid glands
Four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland.
Pituitary gland
Located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica; composed of an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe.
Testes
Two glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male; responsible for sperm production and testosterone secretion.
Thyroid gland
Located in the neck on either side of the trachea; secretes thyroxine.
Adrenaline
Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex.
Aldosterone
Secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases salt reabsorption.
Androgen
Male hormone secreted by the testes and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex.
Antidiuretic hormone
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland ;increases reabsorption of water by the kidney.
Calcitonin
Secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium levels.
Cortisol
Secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases blood sugar.
Epinephrine
Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure and dilates airways. It is a part of the body's "fight or flight" reaction.
Estradiol
Estrogen secreted by the ovaries.
Estrogen
Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex.
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates hormone secretion and egg production by the ovaries and sperm production by the testes.
Glucagon
Secreted by alpha islet cells of the pancreas; increases blood sugar by conversion of glycogon to glucose.
Growth hormone
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates growth of bones and soft tissues.
Insulin
Secreted by beta islet cells of the pancreas; helps glucose to pass into cells, and it promotes the conversion of glucose to glycagon.
Luteinizing hormone
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone secretion in males.
Norepinephrine
Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.
Oxytocin
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor and childbirth.
Parathormone
Secreted by the parathyroid glands; increases blood calcium.
Progesterone
Secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
Prolactin
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes milk secretion.
Somatropin
Secreted by the antrior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone.
Testosterone
Male hormone secreted by the testes.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone thyrotropin
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; acts on the thyroid gland to promote its functioning.
Thyroxine
Secreted by the thyroid gland; also called tetraiodothyronine; increases metabolism in cells.
Triiodothyronine
Secreted by the thyroid gland; increases metabolism in cells.
Vasopressin
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Catecholamines
Hormones derived from an amino acid and secreted by the adrenal medulla.
Electrolyte
Mineral salt found in the blood and tissues and necessary for proper functioning of cells
Glucocorticoid
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates glucose, fat and protein metabolism.
Homeostasis
Tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment.
Hormone
Substance, secreted by an endocrine gland, that travels through the blood to a distant organ or gland where it influences the structure or function of the organ or gland.
Hypothalamus
Region of the brain lying below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. It secretes releasing factors and hormones that affect the pituitary gland.
Mineralocorticoid
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex to regulate mineral salts and water balance in the body.
Receptor
Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited.
Sella turcica
Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland.
Sex hormones
Steroids produced by the adrenal cortex to influence male and female sexual characteristics.
Steroid
Complex substance related to fats, and of which many hormones are made.
Sympathomimetic
Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system.
Target tissue
Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.
Adenectomy
Surgical removal of any gland.
Adrenopathy
Any disease of the adrenal glands.
Adrenalectomy
The total or partial surgical resection of one or both adrenal glands.
Gonadotropin
A hormonal substance that stimulates the function of the testes and the ovaries.
Hypogonadism
A deficiency in the secretory activity of the ovary or testis.
Pancreatectomy
The surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas.
Parathyroidectomy
The surgical removal of the parathyroid gland.
Hypopituitarism
An abnormal condition caused by diminished activity of the pituitary gland resulting in decreased secretion of its hormones.
Thyrotropic hormone
anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the function of the thyroid gland
Thyroiditis
Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
Androgen
Male hormone.
Hypercalcemia
Greater than normal amounts of calcium in the blood.
Hypercalciuria
The presence of abnormally great amounts of calcium in the urine.
Corticosteroid
Any steroid hormone produced and secreted by the adrenal cortex.
Endocrinologist
A physician who specializes in rhe endocrine system and its disorders.
Polydipsia
Excessive thirst.
Estrogenic
Pertaining to estrogen.
Glucagon
Produced by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Raises blood sugar by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen in the liver.
Hyperglycemia
A greater than normal amount of glucose in the blood.
Glycemic
Pertaining to sugar.
Hormonal
Pertaining to or resembling hormones.
Hypokalemia
A condition in which an inadequate amount of potassium is found in the circulating bloodstream.
Myxedema
advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood.
Hyponatremia
A lower than normal concentration of sodium in the blood.
Hypophysectomy
Surgical removal of the pituitary gland.
Thyrotoxicosis
Condition caused by excessive thryroid gland activity and oversecretion of thyroid hormone.
Hypoglycemia
A low level of glucose in the blood.
Adrenocorticotropin
The adrenocorticotropic hormone secreted by the adenophyophysis that stimulates secretion of corticosteroid hormones by the adrenal cortex.
Glycosuria
Abnormal presence of sugar, especially glucose, in the urine.
Euthyroid
Pertaining to a normal thyroid gland.
Hyperkalemia
Greater than normal amounts of potassium in the blood.
Hypoinsulinism
A deficiency of insulin secretion by cells in the pancreas.
Panhypopituitarism
Deficiency of all pituitary hormones.
Tetraiodothyronine
A hormone of the thyroid gland, derived from tyrosine and deiodinated in the periphery to T3 that stimulates metabolic rate.
ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADH
Antidiuretic hormone
FSH
Follicle-stimulating hormone
GH
Growth hormone
hCG or HCG
Human chorionic gonadotropin
PRL
Prolactin
PTH
Parathyroid hormone
T4
Thyroxine-tetraiodothyronine
TFT
Thyroid function test
TSH
Thyroid-stimulating hormone