36 terms

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Aspect
A way of looking at verb forms not purely in relation to time. Aspect relates to the type of event, e.g. whether it is long or short, whether it is complete or not, whether it is repetitive or not, whether it is connected to the time of speaking or not. There are two aspects in English, the continuous/progressive and the perfect. The continuous aspect, for example, suggests that something is happening temporarily.
Clause
A clause generally consists of a subject and a finite verb relating to the subject and any other elements, e.g. object. A clause can be a full sentence or a part of a sentence. Main clause When the teacher arrived, the learners stopped talking. Subordinate clause When the teacher arrived , the learners stopped talking. Relative clause The learners who were sitting near the front stood up.
Collective noun
A _______ is a noun that refers to a group of people or things, e.g. the police, the government.
Complex sentence
A sentence containing a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
Compound noun
A compound noun is a combination of two or more words, which are used as a single word, e.g. a flower shop, a headache.
Conditional (forms)
A verb form that refers to a possible or imagined situation. Grammar books often mention four kinds of conditionals: First conditional - refers to present or future possible or likely situations, e.g. I will come if I can. Second conditional - refers to present or future situations which the speaker thinks are impossible or unlikely, e.g. I would go if they asked me. Third conditional - refers to past situations that cannot be changed, e.g. I would have seen her if I had arrived earlier (but I didn't so I couldn't). Mixed conditional - is used when the speaker wants to refer to different time frames in one sentence, e.g. If I'd arrived on time, I wouldn't have to wait now. If I'd arrived refers to the past and I wouldn't have to wait refers to the present.
Conjunction
A conjunction (or connector) is used to connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences, e.g. I like tea but coffee because it's too strong for me.
Demonstrative adjective
A demonstrative adjective shows whether something is near or far from the speaker, e.g. this (near), that (far).
Demonstrative pronoun
A demonstrative pronoun is a word which refers to a noun (phrase) and shows whether it is near or far from the speaker, e.g. this, that, these, those.
Dependent preposition
A dependent preposition is a word that is always used with a particular noun, verb or adjective before another word, e.g. interested in, depend on, bored with.
Determiner
A determiner is used to make clear which noun is referred to, or to give information about quantity, and includes words such as the, a, this, that, my, some, e.g. That car is mine.
Direct speech, question
The actual words someone says, e.g. He said, 'My name is Ron.', 'What do you mean, Sue?', asked Peter. See indirect speech, question and reported speech, statement, question.
Exponent
An example of a grammar point, function or lexical set.
Full stop
A punctuation mark (.) used at the end of a sentence, e.g. I like chocolate.
Gerund, -ing form
A form of a verb functioning as a noun, which ends in -ing, e.g. I hate shopping .
(Grammatical) structure, form
A grammatical structure is a grammatical language pattern, e.g. present perfect simple, and the parts which combine to make it, e.g. have + past participle.
Indirect speech, question
The words someone uses when they are telling someone what somebody else said or asked, e.g. He told me his name was Ron. Peter asked Sue what she meant.
An indirect question can also be used when someone wants to ask something in a more polite way, e.g. 'I was wondering if you could help me.' (indirect question) instead of 'Could you help me?' (direct question).
Infinitive
The infinitive form is the base form of a verb with 'to'. It is used after another verb, after an adjective or noun or as the subject or object of a sentence, e.g. 'I want to study .', 'It's difficult to understand .'
Infinitive of purpose
This is used to express why something is done, e.g. I went to the lesson to learn English.
-ing/-ed adjective
An -ing/-ed adjective describes things or feelings. An -ing adjective describes things or people, e.g. The book is very interesting An -ed adjective describes feelings, e.g. I am very interested in the book.
Intensifier
A word used to make the meaning of another word stronger, e.g. He's much Interrogative A question form. taller than his brother. I'm very tired.
Intransitive
Is used to describe a verb which does not take a direct object, e.g. She never cried. See transitive.
Modal verb
A modal verb is a verb used with other verbs to show ideas such as ability or obligation or possibility. They include can, must, will, should, e.g. I can speak French, but I should study even harder.
indirect object
is an object affected by a verb but not directly acted on, e.g. He gave the book to me. In this sentence, the book is the direct object and me is an indirect object.
Particle
A small grammatical word, often an adverb or preposition which does not change its form when used in a sentence, e.g. look after, after is a particle.
Person
First person - the person speaking, e.g. I, we. Second person - the person spoken to, e.g. you. Third person - the person spoken about, e.g. he, she, they.
Personal pronoun
Personal pronouns are words, which are used instead of the name of that person, e.g. I (subject pronoun), me (object pronoun).
Phonology
The study of sounds in a language or languages.
Phrase
A group of words often without a finite verb that do not form a sentence, e.g. the green car, on Friday morning are phrases. Also a group of words that together have a particular meaning.
Plural noun
A plural noun is more than one person, place or thing and can be regular or irregular, e.g. boys, women.
Possessive 's' and whose
Ways of showing or asking who something belongs to, e.g. 'Whose book is it?' 'It's Sue's' .
Pronoun
A word that replaces or refers to a noun or noun phrase just mentioned. See demonstrative pronoun, object pronoun, personal pronoun, possessive pronoun, reflexive pronoun, relative pronoun.
Proper noun
A proper noun is the name of a person or place, e.g. Robert, London.
Punctuation
The symbols or marks used to organise writing into clauses, phrases and sentences to make the meaning clear, e.g. full stop (.), capital letter (A), apostrophe ('), comma (,), question mark (?), exclamation mark (!), 'at' symbol (@) and speech marks (" ").
Quantifier
A word or phrase such as much, few or a lot of which is used with a noun to show an amount, e.g. I don't have much time; I have a lot of books.
Relative pronoun
A relative pronoun introduces a relative clause, e.g. the book which I'm reading is interesting.