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6 Functions of the teeth

1. protection of oral cavity
2. mastication
3. speech/communication
4. esthetics
5. tools/weapons
6. aid in digestion

area where crown and root meet

Cementoenamel junction CEJ

actual crown and actual root; never depends on eruption; never changes other than through attrition or other physical wear

Anatomical crown/root

what is seen clinically; the protion of the crown and or root that is visible and not covered by gingiva

Clinical crown/root

portion of jaw that supports teeth; resorbs when teeth are extracted

Alveolar process

a socket which holds individual teeth


teeth in the upper jaw

Maxillary teeth

teeth in the lower jaw

Mandibular teeth

What are the 4 tissues making up teeth

1. Enamel
2. Dentin
3. Cementum
4. Pulp

hardest tissue in the body


Makeup of Enamel

96% mineralized or inorganic
1% organic
3% water

natural wearing away of teeth by tooth to tooth contact such as grinding the teeth


enamel lost by chemical means and what are they

-acid content of vomit
-overuse of acid containing
-acidic foods

makes up the bulk of tooth; hard and calcified; can repair itself


Makeup of Dentin

70% mineralized or inorganic
20% organic
10% water

dentin deposited before completion of apical foramen

Primary dentin

Secondary dentin

-lies between pulp chamber and primary dentin
-formed after completion of apical foramen
-more calcified than primary dentin
-forms at a slower rate than primary dentin
continues to form throughout the life of the tooth
-provides protection to pulp horns; reduces overall pulp chamber

formed in response to trauma; located directly beneath trauma; cavity preparation, decay, occlusal stress

reparative dentin


-bone like substance covering tooth's root
-main function:provides attachment medium for tooth to the alveolar bone
-thin at CEJ
thicker at apex

Makeup of Cementum

45-50% mineralized inorgagic
50-55% organic
trace amounts of water

primary; covers the whole root; formed at a slow rate

Acellular cementum

secondary; only at apical 1/3; can reproduce itself and compensate for occlusal wear (attrition) formed at a faster rate

Cellular cementum

Junction of enamel patterns

60-65% of all teeth overlap - cementum overlaps a small part of the enamel
30% of all teeth meet - cementum meets enamel edge to edge
5-10% of all teeth gap - cementum and enamel do not meet; exposes dentin; adds to probability of sensitivity

supply WBC's to fight bacterial invasion and nourishment to activate and support the formation of secondary dentin

Blood vessels

filter fluids in the pulp

lymph vessels

support system for the structures in the pulp

connective tissue

respond to pain in the pulp

nerve tissue

dentin forming cells

lined with odontoblasts

Function of pulp

provide nourishment; sensory properties; supports the reparative system of dentin

What 5 things does the pulp consist of?

1. blood vessel
2. lymph vessels
3. connective tissue
4. nerve tissue
5. lined with odontoblasts

located in the coronal portion of the tooth

pulp chamber/coronal pulp

located in the radicular portion of the tooth

pulp canals/root canals

extensions of coronal pulp into cusps of posterior teeth

pulp horns

3 basic food precession functions

1. cutting
2. holding/grasping
3. grinding

function of teeth determined by 3 things

1. size
2. shape
3. location in dental arch

function of incisors

shovel shape aid in guiding food into the mouth

function of canines

-hold or grasp, used as weapon or tool
-longest roots
-strong anchor at the corner of the mouth due to the wedge shape in cross-section

function of Premolars

cross between canine and molar; hold and grind

function of molars

chew and grind, designed to interlock or intercuspate with opposing arch

surfaces next to each other in the same arch

proximal surfaces

all developmental growth centers of tooth


lines denoting where fusion of the lobes took place

developmental grooves

small elevation of extra enamel on the crown


depression on concavity on the tooth, location determines name


lingual lob of an anterior tooth


a pinpoint depression; location determines name


mound on crown that makes up major division of occlusal or incisal surface


small rounded projections of enamel on incisal edge of newly erupted teeth


rounded linear elevation on a surface of a tooth


rounded linear elevation of enamel that form mesial or distal borders of occlusal surfaces on posterior teeth and mesial and distal boarders on lingual of anterior teeth

marginal ridge

carved out or indented area


opposite of concave; bulging out


ridge that descends from the tips of the cusps of molars and premolars toward the central part of the occlusal surface

triangular ridge

the union of two triangular ridges

transverse ridges

secondary grooves other than the main dividing lines

supplemental grooves

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