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Module 21, Biology, Conditioning, and Learning
Terms in this set (18)
1. Garcia and Koelling's __________-__________ studies showed that conditioning can occur even when the unconditioned stimulus (US) does not immediately follow the neutral stimulus (NS).
2. Taste-aversion research has shown that some animals develop aversions to certain tastes but not to sights or sounds. What evolutionary psychology finding does this support?
This finding supports Darwin's principle that natural selection favors traits that aid survival.
3. Evidence that cognitive processes play an important role in learning comes in part from studies in which rats running a maze develop _________ __________.
4. Rats that explored a maze without any reward were later able to run the maze as well as other rats that had received food rewards for running the maze. The rats that had learned without reinforcement demonstrated __________ __________.
5. Children learn many social behaviors by imitating parents and other models. This type of learning is called __________ __________.
6. According to Bandura, we learn by watching models because we experience __________ reinforcement or __________ punishment.
7. Parents are most effective in getting their children to imitate them if
a. their words and actions are consistent.
b. they have outgoing personalities.
c. one parent works and the other stays home to care for the children.
d. they carefully explain wh
a. their words and actions are consistent
8. Some scientists believe that the brain has __________ neurons that enable empathy and imitation.
9. Most experts agree that repeated viewing of media violence
a. makes all viewers significantly more aggressive.
b. has little effect on viewers.
c. dulls viewers' sensitivity to violence.
d. makes viewers angry and frustrated.
c. dulls viewers' sensitivity to violence
evolved biological tendencies that predispose animals' behavior and learning. Thus, certain behaviors are more easily learned than others.
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
learning by observing others
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior
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