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AP BIO 2-21-11

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Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
causes ovulation; stimulates secretion of progesterone by corpus luteum; causes secretion of testosterone in testes
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
initiates growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates secretion of estrogen in females and sperm production in males
Progesterone
A hormone produced by the ovaries which acts with estrogen to bring about the menstral cycle.
Human chorionic gonadotropin
from the blastocyst. stimulates the corpus luteum to grow and secrete estrogen and progesterone at a higher rate
hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
pituitary
gland that is the master gland of the endocrine system
epididymis
structure in the male reproductive system in which sperm fully mature and are stored
Fallopian Tube
either of a pair of tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus
Embryo
An organism in the earliest stage of development
Seminal Vesicle
a gland in males that secretes a fluid component of semen that lubricates and nourishes sperm
Placenta
the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus
Prostate
A small gland encircling the male urethra just inferior to the bladder (only reproductive structure not paired). Its secretion contain nutrients and enzymes and account for approximately 35% of the ejaculate volume.
Seminiferous Tubules
site of sperm formation in testes
Scrotum
the external pouch that contains the testes
Ovary
(vertebrates) one of usually two organs that produce ova and secrete estrogen and progesterone
Corpus Luteum
endocrine tissue which produces hormones, estrogen, and progesterone which prepares the uterine lining for receiving an embryo
Follicle
cluster of cells surrounding a single egg in the human female reproductive system
Prolactin
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that tarets the mammary glands stimulating them to produce breastmilk.
Testes
The male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones.
Uterus
organ of the female reproductive system in which a fertilized egg can develop
Menstrual Cycle
a recurring cycle (beginning at menarche and ending at menopause) in which the endometrial lining of the uterus prepares for pregnancy
Endometrium
(pregnancy) the mucous membrane that lines the uterus
luteal phase
phase of the menstrual cycle characterized by the formation of the corpus luteum following ovulation
Follicular phase
the stage in which an immature egg completes its first meiotic division, What phase of the female cycle occurs during days 1 to 15?
Interstitial cells
in the testes, these cells lie between the seminiferous tubules and produce the hormone testosterone
Vagina
in the human female reproductive system, a canal that leads from the uterus to the outside of the body
Mammary Glands
specialized organs in mammals that produce milk to nourish the young
Parturition
the process of giving birth
Gestation
the period during which an embryo develops (about 266 days in humans), the state of being pregnant
Oxytocin
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitocin)
Androgen
male sex hormone that is produced in the testes and responsible for typical male sexual characteristics
Blastocyst
stage in human embryonic development; fluid-filled ball of cells that implants in the endometrium
Gastrula
double-walled stage of the embryo resulting from invagination of the blastula, An embryonic stage in animal development encompassing the formation of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
Blastula
The hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development
Blastocoel
Fluid filled cavity within the hollow ball of embryonic cells
Primitive Streak
In chickens, a linear furrow analogous to a blastopore, stage after formation of a blastocyst. a slit forms in the center of the sheet of cells & cells migrate into the slit & under the original layer of cells to create a double layered disc
Yolk
Cells in the early hollow sphere of embryonic cells
Polyspermy
The fertilization of an oocyte by more than one sperm. This occurs in some animals, but in humans, blocks to polyspermy exist (the fast block and the slow block) so that only a single sperm can penetrate the oocyte.
Archenteron
The endoderm-lined cavity, formed during the gastrulation process, that develops into the digestive tract of an animal.
Acrosome
a process at the anterior end of a sperm cell that produces enzymes to facilitate penetration of the egg
Ectoderm
germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue
Endoderm
germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
Mesoderm
germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue
Neural Tube
a tube of ectodermal tissue in the embryo from which the brain and spinal cord develop
Homeotic Gene
one the genes that are involved in embryologic development
Morula
stage of early development characterized by a solid ball of 16-32 blastomeres
Meroblastic Cleavage
Cleavage of just the embryo and not the yolk sac.
Holoblastic Cleavage
Cleavage of the entire zygote including the yolk sac.
Blastospore
In a gastrula, the opening of the archenteron that typically develops into the anus in deuterostomes and the mouth in protostomes.
Allantois
Receptical for waste disposal in chick embryo
Somite
one of a series of similar body segments into which some animals are divided longitudinally
Budding
reproduction of some unicellular organisms (such as yeasts) by growth and specialization followed by the separation by constriction of a part of the parent
Pheromones
Chemicals secreted by animal species that influence the behavior of other animals of the same species
Leydig Cells
A cell that produces testosterone and other androgens and is located between the seminiferous tubules of the testes.
Ovulation
the expulsion of an ovum from the ovary (usually midway in the menstrual cycle)
Cervix
entrance to the uterus
Estrous cycle
A reproductive cycle characteristic of female mammals except higher primates, in which the nonpregnant endometrium is reabsorbed rather than shed, and sexual response occurs only during mid-cycle at estrus.
Proliferative Phase
lasts 9 days. endometrium thickens in response to increased estrogen. ends with ovulation
Secretory Phase
The third phase of the uterin (endometrial) cycle, during which the rebuilt endometrium is enhanced with glycogen and lipid stores. This is primarily under the controll of progestone and estrogen (secreted from the copus luteum during this time period), adn typically lasts from day 15 to day 28 of the menstrual cycle.
Menstrual Flow Phase
the portion of the uterine cycle when menstrual bleeding occcurs
Implantation
(embryology) the organic process whereby a fertilized egg becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus of placental mammals
Acrosomal Reaction
The discharge of a sperm's acrosome when the sperm approaches an egg.
Cortical Reaction
cortical granules come out of egg to harden the zona pellucida (zona reaction in human)
Fertilization Envelope
the swelling of the vitelline layer away from the plasma membrane
Zona Pellucida
A thick, transpartent coating rich in glycoproteins that surrounds an oocyte.
Animal Pole
The portion of the egg where the least yolk is concentrated; opposite of vegetal pole.
Vegetal Pole
The portion of the egg where most yolk is concentrated; opposite of animal pole.
Gray Crescent
Location between animal and vegetal poles
Yolk Plug
A patch of vegetal cells (endoderm) that remains exposed in the blastopore after the formation of the ventral lip during gastrulation.
Neurulation
Formation of Neural Tube
Organogenesis
process of organ formation that takes place during the first two months of prenatal development
Neural Crest
group of cells that develop from the nerve cord and can form portions of the brain & skull, certain sense organs and nerve fibers
Neural Tube
area in the embryo from which the nervous system develops
Notochord
long supporting rod that runs through a chordate's body just below the nerve cord
Amniotes
their embryos are protected by external membranes
Extraembryonic Membranes
Four membranes (yolk sac, amnion, chorion, allantois) that support the developing embryo in reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Inner Cell Mass
The mass of cells in the blastocyst that ultimately give rise to the embryo and other embryonic structues (the amion, the umbilical vessels, etc.)
Blastomeres
An early embryonic cell arising during the cleavage stage of an early embryo.
Hydrolytic Enzymes
enzymes that speed up/aid in the breakdown of chemical bonds through the addition of water (hydrolysis)
Vitelline Layer
The membrane, usually of protein fibres, immediately outside the cell membrane of the ovum and the earlier stages of the developing embryo.
Acrosomal Process
The sperm forms a tubelike structure called the _________ _______, which extends to the cell membrane and penetrates it, fusing the sperm cell membrane with that of the ovum.
Cortical Granules
Causes changes in the vitelline membrane that harden it; activated by signal transduction pathway that increases the amount of Ca++ in the egg.
Parthenogenesis
A form of sexual reproduction in which an egg develops without being fertilized
Amnion
Membrane in chick that surrounds embryo and yolk
Fertilization
Joining of Egg and Sperm
Albumin
Plasma protein that maintains the proper amount of water in blood