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Terms in this set (16)
viruses that exclusively infect bacteria
Required for the survival
within the cell
literally "inside the cell"
An organism or virus that can only survive when living in or on another organism
intracellular obligate parasites
Organisms or viruses that can only live inside of cells, and in the case of viruses, use the host's machinery to replicate their protein coat.
Why are egg proteins often found in vaccines for viruses?
Viruses must be grown in other cells, and chicken embryos are typically used
All viruses have:
*genome (nucleic acid that is either DNA or RNA based)
*polymerase to replicate their nucleic acid
Most viruses that infect animals have:
a lipid envelope - the glycoprotein "spikes" on the envelope often are what trigger entry into the host cell.
DNA or RNA polymerase
enzyme that can build a new strand of nucleic acid by linking together nucleotides.
How does the virus make new virions?
It replicates its nucleic acid, then makes mRNA strands that go through OUR ribosomes and are made into the capsid proteins.
Then it (somewhat mysteriously!) connects all these capsid proteins around a central nucleic acid and polymerase, ready to burst out of the cell.
How does the virus make new capsid proteins for more viruses?
mRNA from its genes passes through OUR ribosomes to be made into capsid proteins
Minor change in which antigens are displayed by the virus from year to year.
*essentially, the virus is "disguised" from our immune system, as if it is carrying a false identification card.
*replicated and assembled in the cytoplasm, then new viruses burst from the cell (killing the cell)
*Typically cause acute illness (don't go latent)
*examples include cold viruses, flu viruses, GI viruses ("stomach bug"), Ebola, West Nile Virus, norovirus
*enter the host cell's nucleus and are replicated and assembled there.
*many can incorporate into the host's DNA
*for this reason, they are more likely to be associated with "turning on" cancer genes.
*examples include Herpes viruses, Hepatitis B virus, papilloma viruses (cause warts)
*these viruses are also more likely to go latent/dormant and remain inactive for potentially many years.
An RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA and then inserting that DNA into the host cell DNA.
*best example is HIV
What are the main types of pathogens?
parasitic helminths (worms)
Recommended textbook explanations
Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
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